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■ . ■ 

■•'•:■ 
" ; '. ; 

Analytic study 
of a group 

. OF FIVE AND SIX 

WM 01. n children .■ 

. ■ 






LIBRARY 

Walter E. Fernald 
State School 







Waverley, Massachusetts 

No . ■■•■'■ 



X II I- K 

UNIVERSITY OF IOWA STUDIES 
IN CHILD WELFARE 

Professor Bied T. Baldwin, Ph. D., Editor 



FROM THE IOWA CHILD WELFARE RESEARCH STATION 

VOLUME I NUMBER 4 

ANALYTIC STUDY OF A GROUP OF 
FIVE AND SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN 

BY 

Clara H. Town, Ph. D. 
Research Associate 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, IOWA CITY 



STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

Pages 

1. The Physical Growth of Children from Birth to Maturity, by 385 

Bird T. Baldwin, Research Professor of Educational Psy- 
chology and Director, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station 
(in press) 

2. A Survey of Musical Talent in the Public Schools, by Carl E. 36 

Seashore, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Psy- 
chology and Dean of the Graduate College. 

3. A Preliminary Study in Corrective Speech, by Sara M. 36 

Stinchfield, Assistant in Speech Training. 

4. An Analytic Study of a Group of Five and Six-Year-Old Chil- 87 

dren, by Clara H. Town, Research Associate. 

5. Investigations in the Artificial Feeding of Children (reprints) 36 

by Amy L. Daniels, Research Professor of Nutrition, 
Albert H. Byfield, Professor of Pediatrics, and Rosemary 
Loughlin, Assistant in Nutrition. 

6. Child Legislation in Iowa, by Frank E. Horack, Professor 36 

of Political Science. 

7. Selective Migration as a Factor in Child Welfare in the 150 

United States, with Special Reference to Iowa, by Hornell 
N. Hart, Research Associate (in press) 

BULLETINS ON THE AIMS AND PROGRESS OF RESEARCH 

(IN CHILD WELFARE) 

A Child Welfare Research Station, by Carl E. Seashore, Ph. D. 
Vocational Guidance in Music, by Carl E. Seashore, Ph. D. 
Administration and Scope of the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION BULLETINS BY MEMBERS OF 
RESEARCH STATION STAFF 
57. Diet for the School Child, by Amy L. Daniels 
59. The Physical Growth of the School Child, by Bird T. Baldwin 
65. Feeding the Baby, by Amy L. Daniels, and Albert H. Byfield 
School Lunches, by Amy L. Daniels (in press) 
Diet Card, by the staff (in press) 

The Studies in Child Welfare are listed at moderate prices, but are 
sent free on request to persons who are actively engaged in child welfare 
work in the state. The Bulletins on the Aims and Progress of Research 
in Child Welfare may be obtained free of charge from the Librarian of 
the University. Extension Division Bulletins may be secured free of 
charge upon application to the University of Iowa Extension Division. 



CONTENTS 

Editor's Foreword 5 

I. Introduction 7 

II. Physical Examination 9 

Table I 

1. Medical Examination 9 

2. Acuity of Vision 16 

3. Acuity of Audition 17 

4. Dental Examination 19 

III. Anthropometric Measurements 20 

Table II 

1. Height 23 

2. Weight 24 

3. Chest 26 

4. Span of Arms 27 

5. Head 27 

IV. Speech Examination 31 

V. Mental Examinations 33 

Tables III, IV 

1. General Intelligence Tests 38 

Chart I 

2. Analytic Tests 39 

Chart II 

3. Complex Performance Tests 65 

VI. Type Cases 70 

Charts III, TV, V, VI 

VII. References 86 



EDITOR'S FOREWORD 

This is a preliminary investigation for a more comprehensive 
program the Research Station has outlined, covering a series of 
years, and aiming to determine what kind of children the Iowa 
homes are sending to the Iowa schools. Dr. Town made a series 
of observations and experiments from many angles on 52 children 
during the first months of their school life, with the direct help 
and cooperation of the staff of the Station, members of the Medical 
and Dental Colleges, the Graduate College, and the school authori- 
ties of Cedar Rapids.* 

Few physical, mental and social tests are available for use 
with such young children, and many of those which are applicable 
are not standardized. Several of the tests were found to be too 
easy and showed an undistributed maximum score; others were 
too difficult and showed an undistributed zero. With a few cases 
there resulted a complete failure to understand the directions of 
the test, and no score was made. These facts show that some new 
experiments and different standards with more specific technique 
will be necessary for the further studies which are contemplated. 

In the absence of norms, the performance of each child is com- 
pared with the percentile score of the group. For convenience of 
treatment, the psychological tests are grouped under descriptive 
terms such as imagination, memory and perception. This should 
not be taken to mean that any general ability which could be des- 
ignated by such terms, was being tested. The charts and type 
cases attempt to give a synthetic, synoptic picture of twelve 
children. 



♦The medical examination was made by Dr. J. J. Terrall, a local physician of Cedar 
Rapids. The dental examination was made by Dr. E. A. Rogers and Dr. R. W. Rogers 
of the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. The tests for auditory acuity and pitch 
discrimination were given by Mr. H. M. Halverson of the Department of Psychology, Uni- 
versity of Iowa. The speech examination was made by Miss Sara Stinchfield of the 
Iowa Child Welfare Research Station. The other measurements were made by Dr. Clara 
H. Town. Special mention should be made of the assistance of Dr. Carl E. Seashore and 
Et. Ellsworth Faris of the University in planning and carrying out the investigation dur- 
ing the Director's absence in the service of the United States Army. Dr. Town was un- 
able to complete the investigation during her appointment as Research Associate. The 
Director, therefore, assumes the responsibility for a number of minor changes and elim- 
inations which it seemed desirable to make when preparing the manuscript for publica- 
tion. In this work he has had the assistance of Dr. Lorle I. Stecher. Dr. Town, who is 
now in France, has read and approved the final manuscript. 

5 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



The investigator was given as much freedom as the general 
program would permit, and the tests selected, the traits measured 
and the technique in several instances have been determined by 
her interest and training and the accessibility of the materials and 
methods. 

The present problems of the Research Station lie in two distinct 
directions: (1) The elimination of some of the tests, the addition 
or amplification of others, the further consecutive scientific 
analysis of the most fertile experiments, and the examination of 
additional pre-school children, with a view to an ultimate survey 
of the complete child from several aspects, and (2) the organiza- 
tion and stimulation of a remedial program for these and similar 
children who are representative of the large mass of five and six 
year old children of Iowa. It is a most significant fact in this 
Study that not a single child was found to be free from mental or 
physical defects. 

Bird T. Baldwin 



Office of the Director 

Iowa Child Welfare Research Station 

University of Iowa 

October 1, 1920 



XIII- K 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF A GROUP OF FIVE- AND SIX-YEAR- 
OLD CHILDREN 

I. INTRODUCTION 

As a part of the year's research for 1918-1919, the Iowa Child 
Welfare Research Station planned a comprehensive study of 
little children who had just reached school age but who had not 
yet been modified by school influences. The underlying thought 
was, that could the schools obtain, when a child is first entered, 
an adequate knowledge of his abilities and disabilities, strengths 
and weaknesses, both mental and physical, they could make a 
more intelligent attempt to plan the first years of his school liHe 

That improvement is needed in the school procedure during 
these first formative school years is evidenced by the large number 
of children who repeat the kindergarten and the first and second 
grades. In the 1915-1916 report of the Cedar Rapids schools the 
percent of nonpromotions in the kindergartens is given at 27.4 
per cent, in B-first 16.6 and in A-first 16.8. In the 1918 school 
report for Denver, Colorado, the retardation in the first grade 
amounted to 44 per cent, and in the second grade, 52 per cent. 
This retardation is based on age. If retardation starts thus early 
the causes for retardation must already be present, and if these 
causes are discovered at the beginning of the child's school life 
there is a possibility of eliminating the retardation before perma- 
nent harm is done. 

As it seemed impossible to secure the children for the purpose 
of study in any other way than through the public schools it was 
decided to direct our studies to classes just beginning school, classes 
composed of children who, though they had entered school, were 
very nearly home products. The general plan of the Research 
Station is to study several such groups in representative sections 
of some one Iowa city and later to extend the study to include 
cities in various sections of the state and also country schools. It 
is hoped that in this way it will be possible to discover what sort 
of children the Iowa homes send to the Iowa schools. This study 

7 



8 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

i 

presents the results from one class in Cedar Rapids, the research 
extending over a period of six months. 

Though not modified by school influence, these children have al- 
ready been modified by home influence. Each little child of the 
group is the result of six years of development under a home in- 
fluence differing from the home influence acting upon every other 
child of the group. At six years of age, although potentialities 
of some adult abilities have not yet manifested themselves in 
conduct, children are already highly differentiated individuals 
with dominant tendencies of character and temperament. Many 
innate tendencies have appeared, which have been fostered, cur- 
tailed or shunted into diverse channels of activity by the influence 
of home environment or discipline. Many habits, of both body and 
mind, have been acquired. In short, at six years, children are 
already so highly individualized that it is no longer justifiable 
when referring to them to speak of "the child" but better to speak 
of "the children." 

The plan was not, therefore, to study our children in groups, 
but to analyze each complex individual in the group. It was part 
of the plan to learn as much as possible about him physically — the 
development of his body and its parts, the functionings of his 
circulatory, respiratory, digestive, glandular and nervous systems, 
the state of his nutrition, the condition of his sense organs and 
the adequacy of his motor power and control. It was a part of the 
plan to learn as much as possible about him mentally — the stages 
of development of his various mental processes, his habits, in- 
stincts, impulses, temperamental tendencies and dominant traits of 
character. It was also part of the plan to find out what he had 
experienced during his five or six years of life, on the physical 
side — his illnesses, his privations, his indulgences, the character 
of his food, shelter, clothing and general environmental experien- 
ces — and on the mental side, the home influences — emotional, aes- 
thetic, intellectual, religious, moral and disciplinary. 

This accumulation of facts relating to a child as he was in the 
beginning and as he has been during the first five or six years 
when compared with our findings as to what he is at the end of 
these years should tell something of the experiences and influences 
which have made him what he is. Such studies when repeated with 
each of a large group of children should do something toward 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 9 

pointing out what sort of experiences and influences tend to produce 
a satisfactory type of six year old and what sort of experiences and 
influences tend to produce a defective or handicapped type of 
child. 

The collected facts from a small typical group should also con- 
tribute to our knowledge of the number of children who are defec- 
tive physically or mentally when they enter school and to our 
knowledge of the nature of these defects. They should do much 
to show whether the defects noted in so many children after two or 
three years' experience of school life and sometimes attributed 
to school life itself, are already present in the child prior to any 
school experience. 

The following pages contain a record of the studies made of 
fifty-two children in one class in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The report 
naurally divides itself into sections on the physical findings, 
(physical examinations, anthropometric measurements and speech 
examinations), a section on the mental findings and a section on the 
social findings, consisting of sketches of individual children. 
An analysis of the tabulated results of the physical findings brings 
to light some rather startling conditions. Most startling of all, 
perhaps, is the fact that every child in the group is in need of 
physical help of some sort. 

II. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 

The physical examination of each child comprised a general in- 
spection of the body,* a medical and dental examination, together 
with tests for visual and auditory acuity and pitch discrimination. 

1. Medical Examination 

Outline 
Skeletal Development 

Muscular development 

Skin and appendages 

Glands 

Respiratory System 

Upper respiratory tract 

Rate of respiration 
Chest 

Inspection 

•The eye color was also classified and recorded according to the directions and chart 
given in the Trait Book published by the Eugenics Record Office, Bulletin 6. 



10 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



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IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



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14 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

Palpation 

Percussion 

Auscultation 

Von Pirquet when indicated 
Circulatory system 

Pulse rate: standing and sitting 

Regularity of beat 

Quality of beat 

Arteries 

Veins 

Heart 

Blood 

Wassermann when indicated 
Genito-urinary 

Examination of urine-sugar, albumin, indican, acetone 

Sexual abnormalities 
Nervous system 

Sense organs 

Deep sensibility: nerve trunks, muscles, sense of position and 
passive movements, and tension 
Coordination 

Tremors, tics, automatisms, chorea, convulsions 

Reflexes 

Superficial 
Deep 

A number of points merit comment in connection with the 
physician's findings. In the lung examination, rales were de- 
tected in 5 cases out of 43. These are not necessarily an indication 
of tuberculosis, as rales may be due to an acute and transient 
disorder only. Only 1 out of 11 children whose parents consented 
to a Von Pirquet test showed a positive reaction and this was not a 
child in whom rales had been detected. A positive von Pirquet 
may, moreover, be obtained after the active tuberculous condition 
has passed. Enlarged lymphatic glands were present in 41 out 
of 43 children. This, again, is not to be taken as indication of 
tuberculosis, since this glandular condition may accompany dis- 
eased tonsils or adenoids or decayed teeth, all of which conditions 
occurred in a large number of this group of children. 

In the heart examination, murmurs were found to be present 
ir» 11 cases. A heart murmur found in an examination is no 
more a conclusive proof of organic heart lesion than is the pres- 
ence of rales a conclusive proof of tuberculosis. Heart murmurs 
are sometimes the result of anaemic conditions, and to judge of 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 15 

their significance it is necessary to consult the symptoms indica- 
tive of the state of nutrition — the haemoglobin content, the height- 
weight record, etc. Many pulse rates were rapid, but this was 
manifestly due to excitement at being examined. 

The haemoglobin content was measured with a Sahli haemometer. 
In a well-nourished individual approximately 14 per cent of the 
blood stream is haemoglobin. This amount is represented on 
the scale of the instrument used by 100. Dr. Cabot considers 80 as 
the average for children from 5 to 15 years, and Dr. Josephine 
E. Young, in a study of children at the School of Education, 
University of Chicago, secured an average of 77 for boys from 6 
to 11 years, and an average of 80 for girls from 6 to 17 years of age. 
If our data are comparable with Dr. Cabot's, 30 of our 39 children 
have a haemoglobin content below the average. Only one of 
our group reached a content of over 86. This child's haemoglobin 
was 95. The lowest ratings were 66 and 67 ; 27 cases fell between 
70 and 80 and 8 between 80 and 90. It would seem, however, that 
the very method of the haemoglobin test would make accurate 
comparisons between data secured by different individuals almost 
impossible. The exact matching of color required by the test 
makes the reading depend upon the accuracy of the color percep- 
tions of the examiner. This accuracy, of course, varies with in- 
dividuals, and the personal equation is therefore largely con- 
tributory to the results obtained. The haemoglobin content, 
moreover, is only one of many methods of estimating malnutri- 
tion, and to be of value should be considered in connection with 
height- weight, condition of skin, etc. When we compare the 
haemoglobin content with the height-weight record we find that 
18 of the 30 children having a haemoglobin content under 80 
are underweight. (Table I.) In connection with all these medical 
data, it is of interest and value to note the anthropometric records 
in order to see how a child's general physical development and 
weight-height index are correlated with the physician's findings. 

An effort was made to inform the parents of the results of 
the examinations, both by parents' meetings and by visits to the 
homes. Intelligent cooperation in remedying defects was almost 
always secured. It appeared in most cases that the parents were 
unaware of the child's condition and expressed great satisfac- 
tion that the child was having a thorough examination. 



16 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

2. Acuity of Vision 

As the children were still unable to read, it was necessary to 
use for testing visual acuity an ' ' illiterate test. ' ' The E charts on 
the market are unsatisfactory in two particulars: first, there are 
so many E's on the chart that a young child has difficulty in 
centering his attention on the particular E to which the examiner 
points; second, it is quite possible for some children to learn the 
order of the positions on the card while the first eye is being 
tested, which of course vitiates the test for the other eye. To elimi- 
nate these difficulties, a set of white cards five inches square was 
prepared, in the center of each of which was mounted an E cut 
from the E chart. On the back of the chart was written the 
amount of vision necessary (20/20, 8/10, etc.) to see that let- 
ter at twenty feet, and also the position of the E on the reverse 
side. The examiner stood at a distance of twenty feet from the 
child, held the pack of cards in an upright position and exposed 
one at a time for the child to observe. The child was asked to 
point in the direction that the E pointed and was given a little 
practice in doing so at close range before the test was taken. 
If he failed to grasp the idea of the pointing method, he was given 
a cut-out E the size of the largest E and asked to hold it so 
that it looked like the E on the card. One or the other method 
usually brings a satisfactory response unless the child is an im- 
becile of the excitable type. The eyes of 47 children were so 
tested, and 22 (47 per cent) were found to have defective vision. 
(Table I). 

The Maddox rod test for binocular coordination revealed the 
fact that 4 children who had average acuity of vision by the E 
test showed marked incoordination of the eye muscles as did also 
6 of the 22 who had diminished acuity. Such incoordination would 
interfere materially with the process of learning to read. These 
visual defects were present when the child entered school and 
were not due to strain sustained at school through poor lighting, 
blackboards, small print, etc. It is obvious that all children should 
be tested upon entering school in order that such conditions may 
receive attention before further strain interferes with general 
health and school progress. 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 17 

3. Acuity of Audition 

The acuity of hearing was tested by two methods : the whisper 
method and the Seashore audiometer. In the whisper test (An- 
drews' method) the stimuli are special lists of number words pre- 
pared by Andrews. 1 The whisper was kept as uniform as possi- 
ble by always using for it the residual air after a deep inspiration 
and expiration. Each ear was tested separately, a piece of cotton 
being placed in the external meatus of the ear not being tested. 
The child was seated with the ear in line with the examiner, eyes 
looking straight ahead, and told to "Say just what I say." It is 
sometimes necessary to explain very fully what is desired; one 
child so persistently said a totally different number than the one 
spoken by the examiner that misunderstanding was suspected and 
it was discovered that she thought we were playing a kind of game 
in which the examiner thought of a number and then she thought 
of a number. 

The percentage of successful repetitions for each ear was re- 
corded. After the whole group had been tested, the mean per- 
formance for each ear was found and this was used as a norm 
with which each child's performance was compared. The child's 
score was computed in terms of per cent of these norms. If a 
child made no error his score was of course above the average, 
and therefore necessarily above 100 per cent. A perfect per- 
formance with the right ear equaled 108, the average for the 
group being 92. A perfect performance with the left ear equaled 
109, the group average being 91. Only two very low scores were 
obtained: one was right ear 64 per cent, left ear 43 per cent; 
the other, right ear 76 per cent, left ear 77 per cent. The latter 
is an adenoid case; the former's source of trouble has not been 
ascertained. The findings are presented in Table I. It was found 
necessary to examine ears for wax before testing and to wash out 
many. Otherwise, the wax deposits acted as stoppers and reduced 
the hearing. 

The acuity of hearing was tested with the Seashore audiometer. 
For testing these children the audiometer was wired in series with 
one dry cell, a rheostat being introduced to keep the voltage con- 
stant at 0.8 volts. The sound is conveyed to the children's ears by 
telephone receivers and each ear is tested separately. The sounds 



18 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

are produced in descending order from loudest to softest and then 
in ascending order, and the child is told to say "Now" or to nod 
the head . when he hears it. With our little children only the 
descending order was used, as the children found it hard to fixate 
their attention upon the sound and it was difficult to hold them 
for more than three readings with each ear. Unavoidable noises 
from the street and school rooms distracted them somewhat. Three 
readings were secured for each ear and these were averaged to ob- 
tain the score. The highest readings in absolute numbers are the 
lowest scores because the highest numbers represent the louder 
sounds. There are no norms for children with which to compare 
our findings except our group average obtained from 44 children, 
which is: right ear 25.3, left ear 24.8. The average adult hears 
down to 12. The scores are presented in Table I, and may be com- 
pared directly with these averages. With the right ear, the 
poorest score, 37, was that of child No. 2, with 108 in the whis- 
per test, and the next lowest, 34.5, was that of child No. 32, who 
made 87 in the whisper test. The best scores, 14.3 and 18, were 
made by children No. 14 and No. 52 ; child No. 14 made 108 in the 
whisper test and child No. 52 was not tested. One boy failed en- 
tirely who made scores of 87, right ear, and 77, left ear, in the 
whisper test. This boy was, however, a peculiar child, made re- 
ticent by a speech defect, a boy who would not be apt to respond 
until he was thoroughly familiar with the environment and the 
examiner. 

The children were also tested for pitch discrimination, by means 
of resonators and tuning forks, varying from 435 v. d. to 465 v. d. 
by the steps %, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, 23, and 30 in terms of vi- 
bration difference. In regular procedure the standard fork is 
sounded, then another, and the subject is asked to state whether 
the last tone is higher or lower than the first. As children of 
five years as a rule do not know the meaning of high and low in 
relation to sound, they were asked to sing the sound they heard. 
The frequently occurring exaggerations of interval by the children, 
if in the right direction, were taken to mean that the children 
really appreciated the difference in pitch. The least dif- 
ference in pitch that the child distinguished with certainty was 
recorded as the score. The variations in the findings are so 
great that the group norm is useless. The scores vary from 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 19 

2 to 17 vibration differences, with 13 total failures. The individual 
scores are given in Table I. The singing ability of the children 
was also judged by listening to each sing any little song he 
happened to know. The examiner noticed that there were as 
many ways of singing a song as there were children to sing it, and 
that the little ones had individual variations to which they clung. 
He also noticed that many of them had difficulty in changing 
from one tone to another when the difference was a half or whole 
step, or in some cases when the difference was a greater step. 

4. Dental Examination 

The dental examinations were made in a special room to which 
the children were brought one or two at a time. The examination 
charts were filled out at the dentist's dictation. The tabulated 
records are given in Table I. They show in 43 children 220 car- 
ious teeth, 15 abscesses and 5 cases of malocclusion. The teeth of 
36 children needed cleaning by a dentist. Probably as a result of 
a school health crusade in progress at the time, 31 children had 
toothbrushes. Only one child had had a tooth filled, though the 
number of carious teeth, as previously mentioned, was 220. Appar- 
ently these conditions are due to the deplorable belief found 
among parents and even among some dentists that the condition 
of the first teeth does not matter because they will soon come 
out. The remedy would seem to be a school dental clinic. 

To sum up the physical situation, every child in the group is 
in need of physical help and all but one in need of medical at- 
tention for more than one condition. Eight defects were found in 
each of two children, seven in each of five, six in each of eight, five 
in each of seven, four in each of five, three in each of nine, and two 
in each of six children. These children were not, however, from the 
poorest class of society, but lived in comfortable homes and had 
as much physical care as the children of the average working man 
receive. The appended type study sketches indicate the character 
of their environment. In spite of this, they were handicapped by 
the defects and malnutrition noted and were in poor physical 
condition for meeting the strains of school work. 



20 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAKE 

III. ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS 

"If in the future a scientific pedagogy is destined to rise, it 
will devote itself to the education of men already rendered physi- 
cally better through the agency of the applied positive sciences, 
among which pedagogical anthropology holds first place." So 
writes Montessori in the introduction to her Pedagogical Anthro- 
pology. In it she not only brings together an immense amount of 
anthropological data, but clearly points out that the school is the 
field in which anthropology may step beyond the limits of pure 
speculation and diagnosis and actually contribute toward the 
practical work of bringing school children up to the ideals of 
bodily form set by itself. 

Physical anthropology concerns itself with gathering data on 
bodily form. Anthropology as applied to education concerns itself 
with gathering data on the developmental stages of form and var- 
iations of these. In process of the work it discovers variations 
from the usual in an individual child's development and points 
the way for ameliorative treatment before the parts of the body 
become fixed and set in faulty fashion, too often accompanied by 
just as faulty organic functioning. Thus pedagogical anthropol- 
ogy adds to the research function of anthropology a practical 
application which will be far-reaching in its effect upon the well- 
being of the present generation. 

For a concrete illustration, if we find a child is too narrow chested 
and we know that with such a chest the lungs cannot develop or 
function as they should, that chest measurement is taken as a 
basis for special training and exercise which may, if it is begun in 
time, lead to the development of the chest and the saving of the 
child from tuberculosis. 

Special stress is laid by anthropometrists upon the relation 
of various measurements to one another. For example, the ratio 
between sitting height and the height known as index of stature, 
is considered by many to give more information concerning bod- 
ily power and strength than either absolute measurement. For 
example, Montessori holds that the essential height is the sitting 
height because this measurement includes the trunk in which the 
vital organs are situated. According to her, the greater the size 
of the trunk in proportion to the height, the more room there is 






ANALYTIC STUOT DF CHILDREN 



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h-l 

h-> 


cn 

CO 

CO 
CO 


Cn 

OX 

to 

CO 


Cn 
OS 

© 

CO 


cn 




to 

o 

CO 


cn 

CO 
-3 


cn 

Cn 
cn 

h-i 


cn 
as 

h-i 


CT 

CO 

CO 


CT 

CO 

CT 


CT 

c 
-c 


CT 

CD 


CT 
CO 

h^ 

a 


Index of Stature 




to 

o 

CO 


hi 

4X 

Ox 


hi 

CO 

4X 


os 

o 


to 

o 

00 


as 

CO 


h-l 
OS 

-3 


h-l 

cn 

oo 


h-i 

oo 

h-l 


h-l 

cn 
-3 




h-i 

as 
co 


h-< 
-3 

-3 


to 

CO 
h-i 


h-l 

co 
cn 


h-i 
-3 

co 


to 

© 

CO 


ts: 

h-i 

~3 


to 
to 

as 


h-i 

4x 

-3 


h-i 

CO 

© 


h-i 
CO 

ax 


h-i K 

CO h- 

4x CT 


tO h-i 

CO OC 

h-i CT 

to h-< 

© OC 
00 hi 


Weight in Kgm. 




. 

-J 
-3 


CO 

00 


-3 

cn 


cn 
-3 


~3 

00 


cn 

4x 


cn 
as 


cn 

OS 


as 

OS 


cn 

-3 




Cn 

to 


as 
if* 


CO 
CO 


as 

cn 


as 

cn 


-3 

oo 


CD 
-3 


CD 
© 


as 


as 

-3 


as 

-3 


OS CD 
-3 4* 


Weight-Height Index 




CTt 

ax 

Ox 

co 

Cn 


Ox 

C0 

Ox 

-a 

M 


cn 
-3 

cn 
M 

cn 

00 




Cn 
-3 

cn 

ax 

CO 

CO 
Cn 


cn 

ax 

Cn 


cn 

4x 

Cn 


cn 
O 


cn 
to 

cn 


Cn 
O 

cn 




cn 

CO 


cn 
CO 


cn 

CD 

cn 


cn 


CT 


CT 
-3 


CT 

as 

CT 

CT 
h-i 

cn 

CD 


CT 
*>. 

4^ 
CT 

cn 
as 


CT 
CT 

CT 

4^ 

jx 
CT 


CT 

ax 

ax 

-3 

CO 

as 


CT 
CT 

4X 
-3 

OS 


Cn cn 
CO 4^ 

CT 

ax ax 
ax cc 

00 CO 

tol to 


cn CT 

sO ax 


Chest Circumference 




cn 

h-> 

Ox 
h-l 


cn 

h-i 

h-l 
-3 


ax 

CO 

CO 
cn 


ax 

oo 

CO 

oo 


cn 

o 

Cn 




*>- 
CO 

4^ 


4^ 
CO 

co 


cn 

h-i 

to 

CD 


oo 

4». 
CO 


CT 

h-i 

to 


CT 
© 


CTt CT 
CO to 

l-i <o 

CT ix 


Vital Index 




t-» 

tO 

hi 
-3 

Cn 

o> 

00 

CT 
-J 

h-» 

o 


M 

Ox 

hi 

cn 

-3 

Ox 

o 
to 

CO 

to 

cn 


h-l 

CO 

to 




hi 

4x 


h-l 
h- ' 

OS 


h-l 

to 

OS 


h-l 

to 

CO 


h-i 

ax 

CO 


h-i 

to 

co 




h-i 

to 

-3 


h-i 
CO 


h-i 

CO 

as 


h-l 
CO 

cn 


h-l 

to 

h-l 


h-l 

to 

as 


h-i 

CO 

00 

h-i 
-3 

CO 


h-i 

CO 

*". 

h-l 

-3 

cn 


h-i 
CO 

CT 

h-i 

Cn 

h-i 


h-i 

CO 

h-l 

-3 


h-i 

to 

h-l 

as 

CT 


t -1 ►-" 
to to 

co 

os oo 

oo 


1 M h-i 

co to 
ax 


Chest, anteroposterior diam. 




h-l 
~3 

4X 




h-i 

as 


h-* 
-3 

Ox 


h-l 

Cn 
-3 


h-l 
-3 

CO 


h-i 

os 

CO 


h-l 
CT> 

00 




h-i 

cn 


h-l 
00 

CO 


to 

CO 

as 


h-l 
-3 


h-i 

CT 


h-i 
-3 

as 


h-i h-i 
OS ~3 

-3 CO 


Chest, transverse diam. 




-3 

Cn 

00 
OS 




00 
CO 

00 
CO 


as 

OS 

OS 

OS 


00 

o 

to 

cn 


-3 

h-l 

o 

CO 


00 
-3 

-0 

CO 


-3 

CO 

to 

h-l 




00 
-3 

Cn 

oo 


as 

h-i 


Ol 

as 

to 


-3 

as 
to 

-3 


-3 
-3 

O 
~3 


-3 

h-l 

CT 
CD 


-3 

CO 

-3 

h-i 
© 

00 

CD 

oo 
as 

h-i 
-3 

as 

h-i 
4x 

4^ 

to 
to 

CT 

© 

cn 
00 

h-* 
CO 
h-i 

to 
to 

as 


-3 

as 

CT 
-q 

h-l 
h-i 

as 

CD 
-3 

h-l 
-3 

CT 

h-i 
CO 

CT 

to 

CO 

CT 
© 

-3 
-3 

h-i _ 

h-i 
h-i 
-3 

CO 


00 
CD 

© 

CD 

oo 

CO 
-3 

© 

h-i 
-3 

h-i 

h-i 

CO 

to 

CO 
CO 

ax 

CO 

-3 

-3 

h-« 
h-i 

to 

© 
h-i 


-a 

as 

ax 

h-i 
h-i 
h-i 

ro 

CD 
~3 

CT_ 

h-l 

as 

GO 

h-i 

CO 

ax 
to 

CT 
© 

-3 

CD 

-3 

h-l 
h-i 
h-i 
CT 


-3 

to 

-3 

to 

h-l 
h-i 

cn 

CD 

CO 

-3 

h-l 

~3 

00 

h-i 
CO 

00 

to 

-3 

CT 
h-l 

-3 
-3 

CT 

h-i 

to 

CO 

CT 


-3 CD 

co to 
to CO 

h-i 

I- 1 h-l 

I-* © 

CT oj 

co co 

CO cn 

t- 1 h-* 
00 _3 

cn co 

h-l h-i 

co ax 
as ax 

tO h-i 
OS h-i 

Cn cn 
tO -q 

-3 00 

co co 

CT cn 

l- 1 h-i" 
tO h-i 

4x co 
00 to 


00 OS 

© CO 

to co 

co h-i 

h-i t-l 

© © 

-3 CTt 

CT CTt 

h-» 
CO © 
00 CO 

-3 rfx 

h-i h-i 
00 -3 

Ox CO 
h-> hi 

co ax 

-3 CTI 

to to 

CO 

CT CTt 

hi © 

Cn lq 
CT 

~3 00 

ax co 

4x 00 
hi hi 

to to 

© OS 

os co 


Chest Index 




hi 
© 

CO 




h-l 
hi 

cn 


h-" 

o 
4x 

cn 


h-i 

o 

O 


CO 
cn 


h-i 

o 

OS 


h-i 

CO 

oo 




h-i 

o 

Cn 


h-i 
© 

as 


h-l 
h-l 

oo 


h-i 

o 
as 


h-i 

o 

h-l 


h-l 
© 
CO 

CT 


\rm Span 




<o 

CT1 

as 

M 
~3 

CO 


CO 

M 

00 

h-i 
-3 


CO 
CO 

to 

cn 


h- 1 

-3 

CO 


CO 

00 

-3 

00 


CO 

00 

Cn 

h-l 

00 

CO 


CO 
CO 

CO 
h-l 

OS 

cn 


CD 
CO 

-3 

h-i 
-3 

CO 


CO 
-3 

as 

h-i 

as 

h-l 


CO 

00 

h-i 
-3 

CO 


h-l 

as 

CO 


CD 
00 

~3 

h-i 

as 


CD 
CO 

as 

h-i 
-3 

to 


h-i 
O 
h-i 

-3 

h-i 
00 

-3 


CD 
CT 

O 
h-i 

as 

4X 


CD 

as 

h-i 

h-i 
-3 

CO 


CD 

as 

© 

h-i 
-3 


Span-Height Index 




Head, Greatest 
Length in Cm. 




hi 

4x 

tO 


hi 
CO 

cn 


CO 

ax 


CO 


M 

4x 

to 


h-" 

4x 

cn 


h-i 
CO 

00 


h-l 
CO 

00 


h-i 

ax 


h-i 
-CI 


h-l 

to 

cn 


h-i 
CO 


h-l 

co 


h-i 
h-l 


h-i 
CO 

4x 


h-i 
CO 

to 


h-l 

4X 

to 




Head, Greatest 
Breadth in Cm. 




00 


ax 


CO 
CO 




to 


h-» 


h-* 
<l 

Ox 

CO 


00 

Cn 

o 

cn 


h-l 

CO 

Ox 

00 


ts3 

to 

Cn 
to 




as 

ax 

CD 


h-i 

CO 
Cn 


cn 


to 

as 

4^ 
00 

CT 


h-i 

CD 
CT 


h-i 

CO 

CT 

to 




Head, Aural 
Height in Cm. 




CTt 

hi 


cn 
O 


cn 
i-i 

cn 




cn 
CO 


cn 

CO 

In 




Head, Circumference 




00 

to 


-3 

oo 


as 

cn 


-3 

CO 

ax 


-3 

00 

4x 


-3 

CO 

to 


oo 
co 

-3 


-3 

CO 

-J 


00 

as 

CO 


00 
CO 


-3 

OS 

as 


00 

o 

-3 


-3 
-3 

CO 


-3 

cn 


00 
h-i 

-3 


-3 

as 

CO 

h-i 
© 
CT 
CO 


oo 

h-i 

as 

h-i " 
h-i 
CO 
CO 




Cephalic Index 




co 

4x 


hi 

to 

aj 






hi 

co 

00 
CO 


h-» 
CO 
CO 

00 


h-i 
h-i 

o 
>hx 


h-i 
h-i 
Ox 
-3 


h-i 

h-i 

o 

CO 


h-i 

to 

CO 

o 




h-l 

h-i 


h-i 
O 
CO 
CO 


h-i 

to 

-3 
-3 


h-i 
h-* 

CO 

CT 




Head, Capacity 





i-3 



22 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



en 

to 


en 


en 

o 


co 


CO 


-3 


os 


4^ 

en 


fe 
*> 


life 

CO 


4^ 

to 


*> 
I-* 


4^ 
© 


CO 

© 


00 

co 


eo 

-3 


eo 
os 


CO 

en 


eo 


eo 
eo 


CO 

to 


CO 

r- 1 


00 

© 


to 

© 


CO 

CO 


to 

-3 


Child Number 




© 

M 
CO 

© 
en 


td 


w 


td 


td 


Q 


td 


o 


a 





O 


Q 


td 


O 


td 


o 


Q 


td 


Q 


O 


td 


o 


td 





td 


td 




Sex 




en 


en 


en 


en 


© 


*h 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 




OS 


cn 


© 


en 


-3 


en 


© 


en 


en 


en 




Age 




M 

co 


o 

H 

eo 

o 
eo 




en 

rfs> 

o 

oo 

en 


to 




co 

M 


rf*. 

4^ 










4* 


eo 




to 

>-■ 
eo 




CO 

eo 


-3 

co 


co 

CO 


© 

eo 


co 


CO 

(-• 

eo 


to 


CO 

CO 




Birth Month 




o 

CO 

en 

OS 
en 


o 


o 
oo 

en 


o 


o 
o 

en 


a 
os 


o 
os 

en 


© 


© 
en 


© 
eo 

en 




© 
© 


© 
© 

en 


© 

-3 

en 


© 
oo 

en 


© 

-3 

co 


© 
© 


oo 
en 


© 

-3 

co 


© 

© 


© 




Height in Cm. 




© 
co 


en 

© 

en 


© 

o 
en 




© 

o 

en 






OS 


en 

-3 


OS 

© 
en 


en 

-3 
CO 


en 

00 




en 

00 

© 




en 

CO 
-3 


os 

© 

en 


© 

co 


en 

© 

co 


en 

CO 


en 
4»- 


© 

CO 


en 
© 


© 

to 

eo 


cn 
oo 




Sitting Height in Cm. 




en 
co 

00 


en 

o 


en 

CO 

eo 




en 
en 

-q 

OS 


en 

OS 

os 

CO 






en 

CO 
OS 

en 


en 

OS 
-3 


en 

-3 
-3 


en 
co 

-3 


en 

-3 

en 
to 




OS 

© 




en 
eo 

CO' 
en 


en 
en 

CO 

en 


en 

CO 

© 


cn 

CO 

eo 
en 


en 
en 

CO 


en 

© 


en 

CO 

cn 

-3 


cn 
en 

00 

co 


en 
-3 

en 


en 

-3 

to 


Index of Stature 




00 


00 

to 


© 

to 




o 


co 

H 


oo 


-a 

os 


os 

-3 


-3 

os 


CO 
~3 


-3 

OS 


-3 

OS 


*> 


en 

4* 




os 

-3 


© 

-3 


-3 

to 


co 

-3 


© 
© 


cn 

oo 


eo 
en 


CO 

oo 


© 
© 


© 
-3 




Weight in Kgm. 




o 

00 


00 


00 
© 






os 

OS 


-3 


os 


os 

h- 1 


-3 


00 
OS 


os 


-3 


eo 

-3 


00 




en 
eo 


en 
CO 


en 

© 


-3 

to 


© 
eo 


en 

oo 


© 

-3 


i- 1 


-3 

4^ 


© 

en 




Weight-Height Index 








en 

-J 




en 
to 

en 


en 
en 

en 




en 
en 

en 


en 
os 


en 

CD 
en 


en 

os 

en 






*> 

© 


en 
to 

en 




en 
to 

en 


en 
►-» 

en 


cn 

CO 


© 
© 


cn 

© 


en 
© 


en 

© 

cn 


en 

CO 


en 

en 


en 
to 


Chest Circumference 








en 
en 

CO 

eo 




CO 

CO 
00 


en 

M 

M 

en 




en 
H 

en 


en 

CO 

oo 


en 

oo 

to 


en 
eo 

CO 






OS 

CO 

oo 


en 

© 

00 
CO 




00 

© 

CO 


-3 

© 

CO 


4* 

00 

eo 

-3 


en 

en 

to 

© 


en 

© 
© 


en 

© 


cn 

© 

CO 

I- 1 


en 

CO 
-3 


en 

© 


en 

CO 




Vital Index 












to 

en 

I-* 

en 

co 


to 

en 

CT> 

en 

-3 

en 

-3 

en 


— 


to 

en 

-3 


** 


CO 

en 


co 
en 






i- 1 


i- 1 




CO 
OS 


I- 1 
© 


CO 
-3 


co 


CO 

© 


en 


en 
CO 


-3 


eo 


CO 


Chest, anteroposterior diam. 








en 
en 


h- 1 
-3 


-3 

00 


os 
en 






OS 


-3 

© 




I- 1 

oo 


© 

CO 


4* 

oo 


-3 

en 


CO 
CO 


I- 1 
en 

00 


h-' 
CO 

en 


en 

-3 


© 
oo 


© 

00 


Chest, transverse diam. 




o 




o 

en 


CO 

o 

CO 

to 

o 

H- 1 




CO 
CO 


-a 

eo 

en 
to 


co 
to 

co 
en 


-J 

os 

rfs* 

o 


oo 

00 






-3 

00 

© 
oo 


os 

M 

4* 

en 




-3 

© 

© 
© 


-3 

CO 

© 
© 


co 
en 

co 


-3 

4s- 

to 

CO 


-3 

© 

CO 
-3 


© 

-3 
-3 


oo 

CO 

© 


-3 

en 

CO 


-3 
-3 

CO 

00 


-3 

£>- 
CO 


Chest Index 




O 
4^ 


I- 1 






o 
eo 


o 
o 


© 

OS 


o 
oo 


© 

© 


© 
© 


© 




© 
en 


© 


© 
CO 


© 

© 


© 

en 
en 


© 
© 

en 


-3 




© 

-3 

en 


© 
© 


Arm Span 




© 

© 

en 


to 

00 

© 


CO 
00 

o 




eo 

en 

co 


h- 1 
o 
en 






CD 

co 
eo 


CD 
CD 

en 


t-1 

o 
o 


o 


© 

CO 

© 


© 
en 

os 


© 

-3 

cn 




© 
os 

eo 


© 

to 

CO 


© 
oo 


© 

-3 

© 


© 

CO 

eo 


© 
© 

cn 


© 

oo 

-3 




© 

00 

© 


© 

00 

© 

CO 

© 

en 

i- 1 


Span-Height Index 




00 

to 




© 
00 




-3 

h- 1 


-3 
0k 




oo 

CO' 


oo 


~3 

os 


-3 

en 


-3 

eo 


-3 
-3 


-a 


-3 


OS 

© 


00 


-3 
-3 


© 


-3 


CO 
CO 


© 

cn 


© 

© 


© 


-3 

© 


Head, Greatest 
Length in Cm. 




co 
co 




CO 




CO 

en 


CO 
CO 




eo 

co 


to 


CO 


4^ 


CO 

oo 


CO 
OS 


eo 

00 


4*. 


4^ 

CO 


CO 


eo 
4^ 


CO 

© 


I- 1 


4^ 
eo 


CO 
-3 


oo 


co 

00 


en 


Head, Greatest 
Breadth in Cm. 












CO 

eo 


to 

OS 




CO 

eo 


CO 

I- 1 


to 

oo 


to 

-3 


CO 

to 


to 

en 


CO 

© 


CO 

to 


CO 

CO 


to 

OS 


CO 
CO 


© 


CO 

CO 


CO 

eo 


I- 1 


CO 
H 1 


00 


to 


to 

CO 


Head, Aural 
Height in Cm. 








en 

•-> 

en 






en 

o 
en 






en 
to 


en 


en 

H- 1 


en 
© 

en 


en 
(-« 

en 


en 
© 

en 


en 

H 


en 

en 


en 

l-» 


en 
i- 1 


© 


© 
en 


CO 

en 

CO 


© 


en 


© 
en 


en 

CO 


Cn 
CO 

en 


Head, Circumference 




-a 

o 

00 




~3 

CO 




-3 

CO 
CO 


•4 
os 




-3 

os 

OS 


-3 

00 

4* 


-J 

00 


00 

o 
en 


-3 

CD 

-3 


-3 

OS 

CO 


CO 


00 

to 


CO 


-3 

4^ 
4* 


-3 

en 

-3 


00 

to 

© 


CO 
CO 


-3 

00 


co 
eo 


oo 

-3 

en 


00 

I- 1 


00 
CO 

eo 


-3 

Cn 

en 


Cephalic Index 












to 

to 
I- 1 


i- 1 
-a 

OS 




eo 
© 


CO 

© 
os 


to 
to 
en 


to 

CO 
CD 


l- 1 
-3 

en 


to 

© 

eo 


to 

© 

00 


00 
4*. 


i- 1 

CO 
-3 


CO 


© 

© 


© 

CO 

to 


00 


cn 

--3 


© 
en 

CO 


to 

© 

00 


© 
© 


CO 
-3 


CO 

© 
en 


Head, Capacity 








to 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 23 

for these organs to develop and function and therefore the more 
vigorous is the physique. 

There are numbers of established norms for adults and numbers 
of development norms, both of absolute measurements and of 
ratios between measurements. Montessori has gathered together 
many in her book, and many have been established by investigators 
in our own country — Baldwin, Hrdlicka, Boas, Smedley, De Busk, 
Wood and others. By the use of these norms educators can pick out 
the children who vary from the established standards and who re- 
quire special physical care and corrective gymnastics for satisfac- 
tory development. 

In our anthropological examination we made the measurements 
which are generally considered important and computed the sig- 
nificant ratios and indexes. We also inspected the child generally 
and noted any unusual conditions. The measurements taken and 
indexes computed were : 

1. Height (standing, sitting, index of stature) 

2. Weight (weight-height index) 

3. Chest (circumference, vital index) 

4. Span of arm (span-height index) 

5. Head (maximal length, maximal width, aural height, 
circumference, cephalic index, capacity or volume). 

1. Height 

The height (without shoes) and sitting height of each child 
are recorded in Table II. The height may be compared with the 
Baldwin norms* which are : 

Boys Girls 

5 yr. 41.4 in. 
51/2 yr. 42.2 " 

6 yr. 44.3 " 

7 yr. 46.8 " 

The index of stature of each child recorded in Table II may be 
compared with the Montessori norms which are for five year-old 
children 59 ; for 6 year-old children 57 ; for 7 year-old children 56. 



5 


yr. 


41.8 in. 


5% 


yr. 


43.0 " 


6 


yr. 


45.4 " 


7 


yr. 


47.8 " 



♦Taken from Baldwin's The Physical Growth of Children from Birth to Maturity. Univ. 
of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, Vol. 1, No. 1. In press. 



24 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



2. Weight 

The weight of each child recorded in Table II may be com- 
pared with the Baldwin norms which are : 



Boys 

5 yr. 37.6 lbs. 
5i/ 2 yr. 39.6 " 

6 yr. 45.2 " 

7 yr. 50.6 " 



Girls 

5 yr. 36.3 lbs. 
5i/ 2 yr. 38.1 " 

6 yr. 42.6 " 

7 yr. 48.0 " 



Weight tells, however, very little about the size of the person, if 
we know nothing of his height. Eighty pounds is a good weight 
for a boy of 13 who measures 60 inches, but a poor weight for a 
boy of 13 who measures 63 inches. Considered in relation to each 
other, weight and height are indicative of the state of nutrition. 
Other things being equal, weight diminishes as malnutrition in- 
creases. This relation may conveniently be expressed by dividing 
the weight by the height to obtain the weight-height coefficient. 
In Table II is recorded this coefficient for each child. The amount 
of any child's deviation from the weight-height coefficient for his 
age can be obtained by comparison with the Baldwin norms, which 
are; 



Boys 

5 yr. .90 
5y 2 yr. .92 

6 yr. .99 

7 yr. 1.05 



Girls 



5 yr. 

5% yr. 

6 yr. 



.88 
.90 
.96 



7 yr. 1.02 



In order to secure the parents' interest in the children's con- 
dition, a meeting was called at which their attention was directed 
to the underweight and undernourishment discovered in the group. 
The Wood cards correlating ages, heights and weights were 
used as a convenient popular means for explaining to the parents 
the meaning of norms of development and were distributed in the 
hope that an attempt would be made in the homes to bring the 
children up to normal standard. By the Wood standards 30 of 
the 40 children are underweight for their age and height. Six- 
teen children are 10 or more per cent underweight. By Baldwin's 
Iowa norms, these children are relatively tall but underweight 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 25 

Insufficient food explains very few of these 30 cases; it explains 
two, possibly three, in all. 

In examining the medical sheet for reasons other than food 
and housing, we find that children Nos. 4 and 5, each of whom 
lacked six pounds, both had adenoids, hypertrophied tonsils, 
enlarged glands, many carious teeth, flat foot and umbilical 
hernias. These little girls are twins. The mother takes good 
care of them and they have a comfortable home; but the 
parents, the father in particular, do not realize the importance 
of attending to such physical defects as are here summarized. 
The father objected to the examination by the physician. The 
children are bright mentally and would be good looking were 
they not forced by the condition of the pharynx to keep their 
mouths open most of the time. Child No. 6 also has a good home 
but we find that his vision is very poor and his teeth in bad con- 
dition. Child No. 7 is slightly deaf and has a number of carious 
teeth, but more important perhaps is the fact that the mother has 
been entirely unable to control the child and does not insist upon 
his eating the proper food. He eats what he chooses, when he 
chooses, and will eat nothing else. He is extremely nervous and over- 
active. More than all else this child needs discipline by one whose 
authority he would respect. Child No. 10 is a boy in a deplorable 
condition as a result of diseased tonsils and adenoids. He cannot 
breathe at all with closed mouth, there is a constant offensive dis- 
charge from the nose, the hearing is reduced in both ears and eight 
teeth are carious. Child No. 11 has enlarged glands, enlarged tonsils 
and very poor vision. Child 12 has adenoids, enlarged tonsils and 
cervical glands, defective vision, diminished hearing, heart murmur 
and rales. She has a good home, but is an only child, is uncontrolled 
and probably eats unwisely. Child No. 13 has enlarged glands, 
poor vision, heart murmur, scoliosis, lordosis, and needs circum- 
cision. Child No. 14 has enlarged tonsils, carious teeth, defective 
vision and flat foot. Child No. 15 has defective vision, enlarged 
cervical glands, rales and heart murmur. This child very probably 
has insufficient food and poor home care. Child No. 18 has en- 
larged tonsils, adenoids and glands, and defective vision. Child 
No. 20 has defective vision. He is a very well cared for child 
from a well kept home. Child No. 21 has enlarged glands and 
-adenoids. The home conditions are poor, and there is a possibil- 



26 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

ity of insufficient nourishment. Child No. 22 has visual defects 
and heart murmur. The home is poor and ill-kept and there is a 
possibility of insufficient food. Child No. 23 has defective vision. 
Child No. 24 has but one defect, 12 carious teeth. The child is 
suffering much from toothache. The home is poor and badly 
kept. Child No. 26 has enlarged adenoids. The home is unusually 
good. Child No. 29 has enlarged adenoids and tonsils, is extremely 
nervous, but has, in general, been well cared for. Child No. 33 
has enlarged adenoids, tonsils and glands, and flat foot, but is 
well cared for at home. Child No. 34 has enlarged tonsils, adenoids 
and glands, and carious teeth. Child No. 36 has enlarged tonsils 
and glands, adenoids, and defective vision. The home is good. Child 
No. 37 has carious teeth. No. 40 has carious teeth. No. 45 has en- 
larged glands and tonsils, and carious teeth. No. 47 has en- 
larged glands, defective vision, carious teeth and heart murmur. 
The home surroundings are poor. No. 48 has enlarged glands, 
carious teeth and defective vision. The family conditions show 
marked poverty. Nos. 51 and 52 have carious teeth; no medical 
examination was made. Thus every child who is underweight is 
shown to have one or more physical defects and in addition, 18 
have a haemoglobin content under 80. Six of the underweight 
children were not given a haemoglobin test and five rated 80 or 
over. 

3. Chest. 

The relation between the circumference of the chest and the 
height furnishes another measure of the robustness of form. In 
a robust adult the chest circumference is close to one-half the 
height. At birth it is 8 to 10 cm. in excess of one-half the height, 
and at five about 4 or 5 cm. in excess of it (Montessori). The index, 
found by the formula 10 ° x chest circumference is ca ii e a the Vital In- 

Height 

dex. In the adult it is 50, in the child of five it would normally 
be greater than 50. The vital index for each child in the group 
is recorded in Table II. Eighteen out of 43 children so measured 
have vital indices of less than 50, which means a decidedly small 
chest circumference; 22 have indices greater than 50, which is 
more nearly the expectation; and two have an index of 50, an 
adult proportion. One of these is a boy of 6 and one a boy of 5. 



ANALYTIC STUDY 0* CHILDREN 27 

All but one of the children having a Vital Index of less than 50 
are underweight. 

The antero-posterior and transverse diameters of the chest (re- 
corded in Table II) are significant not only in themselves but 
also in relation to each other. The ratio between them, the Chest 
Index, which is indicative of chest and lung development is cal- 

elated by the formula : 10 ° ' ^1^ d^"' • At birth these 
diameters are nearly equal and the index varies from 90 to 100. 
The transverse diameter gradually increases over the antero-pos- 
terior until in adult life the average chest index is 75, with ex- 
tremes of 65-85. The measures and indices for the group are giv- 
en in Table II. They vary from 57.62 to 92.3 with an average 
of 76.77. The boy with the index of 57 is underweight and has 
scoliosis, heart murmur, and enlarged cervical glands. A girl 
with a chest index of 61 is also underweight and has enlarged 
cervical glands and tonsils, and lordosis. Another child with a 
chest index of 61 is much underweight and highly nervous. The 
other children all have chest indices within normal range. 

4. Span of Arms. 
The span of arms or distance between the tips of the middle 
fingers on each hand when the arms are stretched out horizontally 
is recorded in Table II. The span is interesting principally in 
the ratio to the height called the span-height index and calcu- 
lated by the formula : 10 ° x HeiLht — ^^ ^ ne ibices found (Table 
II) vary from 91 to 105, the average being 97. The span was in 
most cases slightly less than the height, exceeding the height in the 
case of only four children. There was one index of exactly 100 
and 22 indices of 98 and 99. 

5. Head. 

The exact significance of head measurements and of indices is still 
disputed ground in the field of anthropometry. Some investigators 
claim to have found that the circumference varies with the nutri- 
tional condition of the child. Others have found head size to be 
correlated with the intelligence of children. A third school, that 
of Karl Pearson, finds little relation between any head measurement 
and intellectual ability. 

Head measurements must be considered in relation to the size of 
the body as a whole, the racial type of the individual and other vari- 



28 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

ables. Apart from the question of their correlation with intelli- 
gence, it is of interest to study head measurements merely from 
the point of view of physical dvelopment. Accordingly, the max- 
imal length and width of the head and the aural height were meas- 
ured by means of a standard cephalometer and the circumference 
taken with an anthropometric tape. A tracing of the shape of 
each head was also taken, a band of soft lead being molded around 
the head, then placed upon a sheet of paper and its inner surface 
used as guide for a pencil tracing. This method is of course, not 
exact enough to secure slight anomalies of shape, but it does 
give, very satisfactorily for general inspection, the proportions 
and gross anomalies. The head conformitor, often used, which 
does record the exact shape of the head, is so heavy and so 
much like an instrument of torture that it is impossible to use 
it with such little children without frightening them. These 
measurements are recorded in Table II. 

The circumference alone which is frequently given as indicative 
of head size, is rather misleading since it does not indicate to any 
degree the height of the vault of the cranium, which increases 
greatly as brain and head develop. The circumference has value 
when considered in relation to volume, but it is not the best index 
of volume. It varies in our children between 48 and 57 cm. In a 
collation of the findings of various investigators we find limits of 46 
to 54.1 cm. for the ages five to seven inclusive. Our maximal cir- 
cumference is that of a five year old girl, the child of Russian Jews. 
She has a head capacity of 1132 cu. cm. by the Lee formula dis- 
cussed later in the Study, and is a brachycephalic. This is the 
only circumference which differs from the usual measurements. 

The three diameters, breadth, length and aural height are 
given in Table II. The ratio between length and breadth, obtained 

by the formula — length — : * s ca ^ e( ^ the Cephalic Index. This 
index is, in children, more significant than the circumference be- 
cause after the first two years of life the proportions of the cranium 
remain practically the same, while the circumference increases. 
This makes age norms necessary to judge of a circumference and 
unnecessary to judge of a cephalic index. 

The cephalic index varies normally between 70 and 90. Within 
these limits there are three shapes of head : dolichocephalic, or the 
long head; brachycephalic, or the broad head; and the meso- 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 29 

cephalic, or the intermediate form. If the cephalic index falls 
between 75.1 and 79.9 the shape is mesocephalic ; if it falls be- 
tween 70 and 75, the shape is dolichocephalic; if it falls between 
80 and 86.9, the shape is brachycephalic ; and if it is greater than 
86.9, the shape is hyperbrachycephalic. These are figures limiting 
the types which are usually found in this country, but there are 
several other standards. An index less than 70 or greater than 
90 indicates abnormality of some sort. The type of head is con- 
sidered a racial characteristic. The people of Asia as a rule are 
brachycephalic, those of Africa dolichocephalic, those of Europe 
and America range from dolichocephalic through mesocephalic to 
to the extreme brachycephalic. The index is used as a basis for 
classification of human races and as a key to determine from which 
races a given people has originated. 

The cephalic indices of our children, computed by the regular 
formula are presented in Table II. Among our children we found 
all three types of head. Five were dolichocephalic: children No. 

2, 4, 36, 23 and 52; twenty were brachycephalic: children No. 1, 

3, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 20, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 42; 
twenty-fbur were mesocephalic: children No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 
14, 16, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 32, 35, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 48, 50, and 
54. 

All of these children were born in the United States, but among 
the parents and grandparents we find the following nationalities 
represented: English, Irish, Swedish, Canadian, German, Dutch, 
Norwegian, Russian, Bohemian, Moravian and Danish. Among 
the dolichocephalic we find English and German ancestry; among 
the mesocephalics, English, Scotch, Irish, Canadian, German, Swed- 
ish, Norwegian, and Russian ancestry; and among the brachy- 
cephalics, English, Irish, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, 
Bohemian, Russian and Danish. All of the Bohemians are brachy- 
cephalic, one a hyper-brachycephalic ; all but one of the Russians 
are brachycephalic, and his index is 79.7; the Norwegians, Danes 
and Dutch are represented only in the brachycephalic group; the 
the hyperbrachycephalic boy is extremely tall, large in all his pro- 
portions, very fair and blue eyed; his parents are Bohemians. 

The cranial capacity of these children was computed by a for- 
mula of Alice Lee used by Dr. S. D. Porteus in a study of normal 
Australians and of feebleminded children in Vineland, N. J. The 



30 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

formula is: (length — 11mm.) (breadth — lmm.) (height — 11 
mm.) X .000337 + 406 cu. cm. Table II shows the cranial capacity 
of each child in the group. 

Cranial capacity increases with age up to a maximum which is 
set at different ages of adult life by different investigators. Like 
cephalic index it is dependent upon stature and race. 

Porteus using the Lee formula and measuring normal children 
of seven, eight and nine years, gives limits of volume as 1160 and 
1480 cu. cm., with a median of 1282. The limits of head volume 
with our group measured by the same methods, are 1053, Child No. 
31, and 1395, Child No. 27, with a median of 1187. These two 
children whose head measurements are the extremes of our group 
are both five years old; their index of stature varies directly 
with head capacity (54.40-57.42) as also does their head circum- 
ference (49-53.5). The general intelligence of the child with 
minimum measurements is, if anything, a little more highly de- 
veloped than that of the child with maximal measurements. 

Just as the results of the medical examination are of greater di- 
agnostic value when considered in relation to each other, so also 
are the anthropometric findings. In judging a chest development 
we learn more by referring to Index of Stature, Vital Index, and 
Chest Index than by referring to any one of these indices. 
By consulting Table II, we find that Child No. 7 has an Index 
Stature of 53.16, a Vital Index of 54.45 and a Chest Index of 89.40. 
We know by the first that his trunk is short in proportion to his 
legs, by the second, that the circumference of his chest is in good 
proportion to his height, and by the third that the chest is too 
round, retaining its infantile proportions. By referring to the 
medical record, Table I, we find that he has prominent scapulae 
and scoliosis. In this case the Vital Index alone gives no idea 
of the lack of development of the transverse diameter which the 
Chest Index and the note on the protruding scapulae supply. We 
naturally refer next to the lung record and find it clear. In judg- 
ing of head development we learn more by referring to the Head 
Capacity, Cephalic Index and Circumference together than by re- 
ferring to any one of them. Let us examine these measurements 
for Child No. 3. The head capacity is 1132 cu. cm. This is below 
the medium degree of brachycephaly. The circumference is 57, 
the largest circumference found in our class and several centi- 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 31 

meters beyond standard norms for the age of the child. The cir- 
cumference alone indicates a large head, the capacity contradicts 
this, the contrast between the two indicates a low vault of the 
cranium, and this we find is actually the case, the aural height 
being 11.1 cm., while the minimum height in all our children is 
11 cm. 

On account of the modifying effects of the various anthropomet- 
ric data upon each other our findings are of much more practical 
use in forming a judgment of an individual child than they are in 
forming a judgment of the class as a group. The class averages 
for the various anthropometric measurements are therefore not 
presented. 

IV. SPEECH EXAMINATION 

The speech of 42 children in the group was tested, the following 
points being considered: 

I. Posture of child in relation to speech. 

II. Respiration 

a. Breath control 

b. Chest expansion 

Upper and lower chest inflated and deflated 

c. Type of breathing: Superior costal, inferior costal. 

III. Voice 

a. Quality of tone: Resonant, unresonant 

b. Volume of tone: Loud, soft 

c. Inflection: Range of tone, monotony 

IV. Speech 

a. Type of speech difficulty 

b. Specific record of consonants and consonant combinations 
giving difficulty 

c. Vowels slighted or non-resonant 
The materials used were: 

I. Words containing all consonants in initial, middle and final 
position 
II. Words containing principal vowel sounds 
III. Selections for testing reading and articulation (School 

readers and story books or pictures) 
IV. Franz speech testing material Test No. 75141 
V. Set of alphabet blocks 
VI. Lewis Phonetic Cards (1915) 
VII. Tongue depressors and tongue applicators. 
It was found impossible on the basis of the examination re- 
sults to divide the class into two groups, one of which contained 



32 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

children with perfect speech, and the other of which contained 
children with defective speech. In speech, as in other abilities, the 
transition is so gradual from normal performance to defective 
performance that it does not permit of an absolute dividing line. 
The division which seems most practical is that into two groups of 
children, one containing children who had no speech difficulties 
which could not be eradicated by regular classroom training, and 
one containing children who required special training for speech 
defects of a more serious nature. Of the 42 children examined, 
32 fall into the first group, requiring no special form of speech 
training. Ten, however, need expert training for the correction of 
speech inaccuracies and negligencies, five of these ten being classi- 
fied as defective speech cases. In one of the five a very marked 
and persistent infantile stammer exists. This child has great 
difficulty in making himself understood by anyone except a little 
brother of ^\e years who not only understands him, but talks in 
the same way while conversing with him, though using normal 
articulation when talking to other people. The only time that 
this little boy, Child No. 1 of our series, talks freely, rapidly, 
and with ease and apparent enjoyment, is when he is playing with 
this little brother and has to make no effort to conform to the usual 
method of speech. 

The specific speech difficulties found, with number of cases of 
each type, were : 

Negligent lisping 6 cases 

Organic lisping 2 

Infantile speech 3 

Monotony of tone 8 

Faulty respiration 4 

Nasality 4 

Unresonant voice 7 

Inaudibility 2 

Negligent speech habits 4 

Faulty articulation 7 

Poor posture (affecting speech) 2 

Total number of speech difficulties encountered 49 

Number of different types of speech disturbance 11 

In spite of the fact that in this one class of kindergarten chil- 
dren there are ten children who need instruction in speech from 
a person specially trained in the technique of speech correction, 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 33 

the school system provided no teacher for this special type of 
work. If we assume that the need is as great in all first grades of 
the city as it is in this one under inspection, the failure to provide 
such instruction is a very serious omission. In the case of Child 
No. 1 it may result in absolute failure to progress in the grades. 

V. MENTAL EXAMINATIONS 

There are two facts about human beings which have an all- 
important bearing on educational practice. The first of these is 
a very great similarity of mental ability, the second is an equally 
great diversity of mental ability. 

The first fact, the great similarity, has made it possible to 
develop intelligence scales, like the Binet tests, which in effect 
assert that average human beings all have a certain degree and 
kind of mental ability at 5 years of age, a certain other degree 
and kind of mental ability at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 years of age, 
etc., as the age increases. 

The second fact, the great individual diversity of mental abil- 
ity, compels us to realize that among a group of, let us say, 20 
children, each having the same level of mental development, we 
may have twenty different types of children, each one having 
his possibilities of greatest development and greatest success in a 
different direction from all the others. One child of the intelligence 
level of 10 years may have very good color perception and a vivid 
imagination and very poor application and reasoning ability; an- 
other child of the same intelligence level may be color blind and 
lacking in all invention and yet have well-developed capacity for 
sustained attention and good reasoning ability. Various combina- 
tions of abilities, disabilities, strengths and weaknesses, make a 
class of 20 children of about equal general intelligence a group 
of intensely individual characters, each presenting a different 
problem. 

In our public schools, after the feeble-minded, — those perma- 
nently subnormal in general intelligence, — have been discovered 
and removed from the general classes, the problems of the teacher 
are not greatly simplified by a knowledge of each child's intelli- 
gence level. It is essential for the teacher to know much more than 
this; she must know for each child which mental abilities are 
most apt to yield the greatest rewards from cultivation and which 



34 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

mental abilities it is vain to try to develop. She must know why 
this boy of good general intelligence does not learn to read, or 
does not learn to subtract. In order to obtain this knowledge, 
a mental analysis is necessary which will reveal the individual's 
mental strengths and weaknesses. 

Many psychologists make such analyses, but a method of analy- 
sis combined with a method of presenting results equal in pre- 
cision and clearness to the method used in presenting the results of 
an examination for general intelligence has never been developed. 
Rossolimo 17 used a method of expressing the results of such analy- 
sis which he called the psychological profile. His method contains 
a suggestion of one which perhaps combines the elements of clear- 
ness and precision for which we are looking. Rossolimo used a series 
of tests ranging over the various mental abilities, scored the re- 
sults so obtained and presented them in graphic form. A per- 
fect score for the test given for any mental ability was 10; if an 
individual made a score of 10 in visual memory, 7 in dispersed 
attention, 3 in color perception, etc., the graph would show a de- 
pression at the point representing dispersed attention and a still 
greater depression at the point representing color perception. The 
peaks in the graph would represent strengths of abilities, the de- 
pressions in the graphs, weaknesses. A graph consisting of a 
straight line would represent, according to Rossolimo, perfectly 
balanced mental abilities. 

As a matter of fact, though it is possible to produce a graph 
showing just what Rossolimo attempted to show by his psycholog- 
ical profile, Rossolimo 's graphs fail to do so. They fail because 
Rossolimo failed to equate the score values of his numerous tests. 
Each group of tests was scored by the same method, ten tests 
were given for each mental ability, 1 point accredited for each 
success, 10 being the perfect score. There is nothing in this pro- 
cedure to suggest that a score of 10 in any one ability tested rep- 
resents exactly the same strength of that ability as a score of 10 
represents for each of the other abilities. It is easy to realize that 
a series of tests devised for one mental ability might demand a 
lesser degree of development of that ability in order to secure a 
perfect score than a series of tests devised for a second ability 
might demand of that second ability in order to secure a perfect 
score. 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 35 

Claparede 5 recognized the inherent beauty of the profile method ; 
he also realized that Rossolimo's failure to equate the scores for 
the several abilities completely destroyed the value of the profile 
as a record of the comparative strengths and weaknesses of an in- 
dividual's mental ability. He, accordingly, suggested a very sim- 
ple modification, or rather an amplification, of Rossolimo's pro- 
file which makes of it a true psychological profile, showing quite 
accurately the strengths and weaknesses in an individual's mental 
makeup. 

Claparede proposed using a series of analytic tests, Rossolimo's 
or others, with a homogeneous group of individuals, let us say, 
15 year old boys, arranging the results of each test in rank order 
and compiling from the rank orders of the various tests a per- 
centile table for each to show what score in each test is made by 
the 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 percentile of the 
group. The actual scores made by any one percentile, say the 50 
percentile, for the various tests might be quite different, but they 
would have the same percentile value for the group. One test 
might have a 90 percentile score of 40, another test a 90 per- 
centile score of 80. The actual score for the latter test would be 
twice that for the first test, but its value as a performance compared 
with the performance on the other tests of the group would be 
exactly the same as that of the lower score for the first test. From 
the complete percentile table computed from the results of a series 
of tests given to a homogeneous group, we can learn just what 
scores the lowest tenth and the successively higher tenths of the 
group attained. We can compare with these findings an individ- 
ual's score and learn at once the relation of his performance 
to that of the entire group, and can compare his score not only 
with the median score for the group, but with the score of each 
tenth of the group from lowest to highest. 

If an individual made scores equal to the 90 percentile in all of 
the tests given, he would be uniformly strong mentally for the 
particular group of individuals (15 year old boys, 12 year old girls, 
congenitally blind adults, etc.) to which he belongs. If he made 
scores equal to the 50 percentile, he would be uniformly mediocre 
mentally. If he made scores equal to the 90 percentile in one 
test, the 70 percentile in another, and the 30 percentile in another, 
he would be of uneven ability, strong in some directions, weak in 



36 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

others, and the differences disclosed would be a valuable guide 
for the wise teacher. The individual graph, or psychological pro- 
file, as Rossolimo calls it, according to this plan, will be made up 
from the percentile values of the scores, not from the actual scores, 
and the peaks and the depressions in this graph will actually 
represent strengths and weaknesses of achievement. 

Rossolimo 's profile, supplemented by Claparede's idea of basing 
the profile values on percentile values, has opened the way for 
clear, precise presentation of the results of a mental analysis, a 
presentation in a graph which will truly represent the psychologi- 
cal profile. We have adopted this method and have treated the re- 
sults of a long series of analytic tests by the plan of Claparede, 
presenting the psychological profile for typical children in the 
group. (Charts III, IV, V, VI.) 

The mental examination of each child included: 

1. General Intelligence Tests. An examination and rating 
of the general intelligence by two methods : 

The Binet Simon Intelligence Scale, 1911 revision 3 
The Stanford Revision of the Binet Simon Intelligence 
Scale 22 

2. Analytic Tests. A mental analysis made by the use of tests 
for: 

(a) Perception: 

(1) Grey (4) Green (7) Form 

(2) Red (5) Yellow (8) Position 

(3) Blue (6) Length (9) Weight 

These are all tests of the perception of slight dif- 
ferences, the performance in each instance consisting 
of a comparison and matching. 

(b) Immediate Memory for : 

(10) Words (13) Objects (15) Position 

(11) Sentences (14) Forms (16) Pictures 

(12) Color 

(c) Attention 

(17) Visual span 

(18) Auditory span 

(19) Simple attention 

(20) Discriminative attention 

(21) Simple attention 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 37 

(22) Discriminative attention 

(d) Active imagination 

(23) Heilbronner 

(24) Healy-Fernald Puzzle A 

(25) Healy-Fernald Puzzle B 

(e) Reasoning 

(26) Judgment 

(f ) Psycho-motor ability 

(27) Steadiness I, right hand 

(28) Steadiness I, left hand 

(29) Steadiness II, right hand 

(30) Target, right hand 

(31) Target, left hand 

(32) Spirometer 

(33) Dynamometer, right hand 

(34) Dynamometer, left hand 

(g) Learning ability (involving perception, attention, 

memory and motor habit formation) 

(35) Healy-Fernald Puzzle A 

(36) Healy-Fernald Puzzle B 

(37) Wiring 

(38) String games 
(h) Suggestibility 

(39) Judgment of length 

(40) Judgment of weight 

(41) Hallucination of smell 

(42) Hallucination of taste 

(43) Automatism, taps 

(44) Automatism, eye — hand 
3. Complex Performance Tests. 

(45) Maxfield cube (48) Knox-Pintner cube 

(46) Seguin formboard (49) Porteus maze 

(47) Line reproduction 

We thought it of interest to include in our mental examination 
several tests, the performance of which involves too many mental 
abilities to permit of their being included in the analytic series. 
They are all valuable in diagnosis, just because they do involve a 
complex mental activity and bring out characteristic tempera- 
mental reactions and fatigue reactions which the analytic tests 



38 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAEB 

fail to do. These tests are five in number : the Maxfield cube test, 
the Seguin 21 formboard test, the line reproduction test, the Knox- 
Pintner 13 cube test, and the Porteus 14 maze test. 

1. General Intelligence Tests. 

Forty-five children were tested by the Binet Intelligence Scale 3 
and also by the Stanford Revision of the Binet Scale. 22 In Table 
III are presented the scores in relation to the chronological age. 
The Symbol A indicates that the test age and chronological age are 
identical ; numbers preceded by + indicate the number of years the 
test age exceeds the chronological age, and numbers preceded by — 
indicate the number of years the test age falls short of the chrono- 
logical age. The same method of scoring is used for the Knox- 
Pintner cube test, and for the Porteus maze test, for both of which 
age norms have been established. It cannot be followed for the 
Healy A as the method of presentation is not comparable. 

In the Binet-Simon 1911 series, 14 children scored at age, 18 
children scored one year above age, 11 children scored two years 
above age, and two children scored one year below age. The 
mode thus shifts from the chronological age to one year higher, 
with 16 children attaining lower and 11 children attaining higher 
scores than the mode. 

By the Stanford revision, 25 children scored at age, 16 children 
scored above, and four children below age. The mode is at age, 
but the distribution favors the excess age, scoring 16 to four. 
The Binet 1911 scale shows a better distribution around the mode, 
but the mode is one year in advance of the chronological age. 

Binet -Simon Stanford Revision Knox-Pintntr Cubt Porteus Maze 

1911 Series of Binet-Simon 

- Delow Chronological Age 

' At Age 

* Above Chronological Age 





Sooro»-I • *!+£ -i » */ +z -z-f m+i +Z*3+4+5+e+7+a+3+K>+ll -I = *l +Z *3+4 +5*6*7*3 

C<m*« Z 14 lo II 4Z5I4 Z t 3 13 7 & 2 4 Z Z Z 3 3 S IZ * II 3 II 

Chart I Distribution of Scores in Mental Age Tests 

It is gratifying to note that only four children in this class grade 
by either scale below chronological age, and that no child is more 
than one year retarded. There is a possibility that one child in the 
class has subnormal intelligence, but he is handicapped by so many 
physical defects that their correction may result in greater progress 
than now seems probable. 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 39 

2. Analytic Tests. 

The scores obtained by each child for each of the 44 analytic 
tests are presented in Table III. The Mean and Mean Varia- 
tion and the Probable Error and Probable Error of Mean 
are represented for each test. One test of imagination, two of 
attention, the Winch reasoning test, two learning tests (substitu- 
tion method), and steadiness test II, left hand, were discarded as 
the result of the mathematical treatment of the results, the P. E. 
for each of these tests being greater than half the mean, and there- 
fore invalidating the results. The individual scores for each of the 
44 remaining tests were then arranged in rank order from the low- 
est to the highest. The lowest score for each test was used as the 
score for the percentile table, the highest for the 100 percentile 
score; the lowest tenth of the series was considered in the per- 
centile; the lowest score above this lowest tenth of scores was used 
as the 10 percentile; the lowest score above the lowest two-tenths 
of scores for the 20 percentile, etc. From this percentile table of 
scores for each test (Table IV) the individual percentile ratings 
were obtained by translating individual absolute scores (Table III) 
into terms of percentiles. For instance, Child No. 3 made in test 15 
a score of 28.56 (Table III). By looking at Table IV, one finds 
this is the score made by the 30 percentile of the group. Thirty, 
then, is the percentile rating for Child No. 3 in this test. The graphs 
or psychological profiles are plotted from the percentile ratings. 
Each profile represents one child's performance in the series of tests 
whose names are given at the top of the graph. A dot opposite the 
name of each test indicates the child's percentile rating in the test. 
The lower the dot on the graph the lower is this percentile rating 
and the poorer his performance. Typical profiles are shown for a 
number of children for whom descriptive sketches are also given in 
Section VI of this Study. 

Our percentile values are computed from the results obtained 
from a small group of children. For a few of the tests the number 
was as low as 23, though for most of the tests it reached 39, 40 or 
more. Though the group was quite homogeneous the percentile 
values from such a small number could in no way be considered as 
norms. The percentiles were computed in the absence of norms for 
such young children, largely in order to make comparable the work 
of different children on the series of tests, and to realize fully the 



40 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

possibilities of the profile method for mental analysis. Such psycho- 
logical profiles as are here presented if based on accurate norms, 
cannot fail to reveal the mental strengths and weaknesses of the in- 
dividuals they represent, and a series of such profiles will bring 
into prominence the differences in mental quality of the individuals 
represented. The value of such information to one choosing individ- 
uals from a group for a certain kind of employment or profession 
is very apparent. 

a. Perception 

Tests 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 — Perception of Color and Brightness. The first 
group of tests was designed to measure the ability to perceive 
slight differences in color and brightness. The colors used were red, 
blue, green, and yellow. For each of these, five strips — tints 1 and 2, 
standard, and shades 1 and 2, Bradley Colors — were mounted, in the 
order named, on gray cards, and for each of these, five smaller gray 
cards were prepared on each of which was mounted a duplicate of 
one of the five colors on the large card. Similar materials were pre- 
pared, using five shades of Hering grays. 

The tests were conducted as follows : the card containing the five 
reds was placed on the table before the child and the five smaller 
cards were placed nearer him. The experimenter pointed to the 
lightest tint, saying, "Find the red just like this." After the child 
had found it, the experimenter pointed to the next tint, giving 
the same directions and so proceeded until the five small cards had 
been placed. This procedure was repeated with blue, yellow, green 
and gray. It was found by preliminary experiments that more than 
five colors made the situation so complex that it ceased to be a true 
perception test for children of five years. The tests also ceased to be 
tests of perception if the child was asked to arrange the small cards 
as were the colors on the large card. Binet 3 called attention to a sim- 
ilar situation in his test which requires the arrangement of five 
boxes in order of weight, pointing out that the power to hold in 
mind the idea of serial order is involved as well as perception of 
slight difference in weight. The latter ability Binet placed at four 
years and the more complex one at ten years. For each of these tests, 
20 was credited for each successful matching, the perfect score be- 
ing 100. The group percentile score for the 39 children tested was 
high, 100 being the 40 percentile score for green and yellow and the 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 



41 



Table III (1) 



i 






2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 8 


1 9 


10 


Sentences £ 


u 
0) 

s 

PS 

2 

2 
o 


o> 

m 


< 


o 
< 
-p 

C 

s 


>> 

03 
u 
O 


01 


0) 

s 


0) 
0) 

u 
O 




J3 

bo 
C 
0) 


B 

u 
o 

fa 


JO 

03 

O 

fa 


■4J 

'5 


u 
O 


i! 


B 


5 


5 


20 


40 


40 


20 


40 





| 30 


| 22.2 


66.64 


50.00 


2| 


G 


5 


5+ 


60 


66 


40 


100 


100 


16.66 


66.64| 50 


| 66.6 


66.64 


62.50 


3| 


G 


5 


6 + 


100 


60 


100 


100 


60 


100.00 


33.32 


40 


| 88.8 


66.64 


62.50 


4| 


G 


5 


7 


100 


100 


60 


100 


100 


16.66 





60 


| 55.5 


66.64 


62.50 


5| 


G 


5 


7+ 


60 


100 


60 


100 


60 


33.32 





40 


| 44.4 


66.64 


75.00 


•1 


B 


5 


7+ 


60 


100 


100 


100 


60 


16.66 


66.64 


80 


| 11.1 


83.30 


75.00 


7| 


B 


5 


6 


100 


60 


60 


60 


60 






40 


| 55.5 


66.64 


62.50 


81 


B 


6 


6+ 


60 


60 


100 


100 


100 


33.32 


66.64 


80 


| 55.5 


83.30 


87.50 


9] 


G 


5 


6+ 


20 


60 


40 


100 


60 


33.32 


66.64 


50 


| 44.4 


66.64 


100.00 


10 1 


B 


6 
5 


5+ 
6+ 


60 
40 


40 
100 


60 
"60 


100 
100 


60 
100 


16.66 
33.32 





40 


|100.0 


66.64 


100.00 


11| G 


33.32 


100 


1 11.1 


83.30 




12| G 


5 


6+ 


100 


60 


40 


40 


100 


100.00 


16.66 


80 


| 77.7 


83.30 


100.00 


13j B 


6 


7+ 


20 


60 


20 


100 


100 


66.64 





80 


| 22.2 


83.30 


50.00 


14| G 


6 


6+ 


100 


40 


100 


100 


60 


16.66 


33.32 


50 


| 55.5 


66.64 


87.50 


15| G 


6 


7+ 


40 


100 


40 


60 


60 


100.00 


33.32 


40 


| 22.2 


83.30 


75.00 


16| G 

17| G 


5 
5 


6+ 
7+ 


60 


100 


60 


100 


60 


100.00 


66.64 






49.98 




60 


60 


100 


100 


60 


100.00 


33.32 


100 


| 55.5 


83.30 


87.50 


18| G 


5 


7 


60 


100 


60 


100 


100 


49.98 





30 


| 44.4 


83.30 


87.50 


19| 


G 


5 


6+ 
6+ 


60 

100 


100 


60 


60 


60 


100.00 


49.98 








20| 


G 


5 


60 


100 


100 


100 


49.98 





30 


| 44.4 


49.98 


62.50 


21| B 


6 


6+ 


100 


40 


40 


100 


40 


66.64 





80 


| 55.5 


83.30 


87.50 


22| B 


5 


7+ 


60 


100 


100 


100 


100 


16.66 


16.66 


50 


| 44.4 


100.00 


75.00 


23| B 


5 


7 


100 


20 


100 


100 


60 


100.00 


16.66 






83.30 


100.00 


24| G 


6 


6 + 


60 


60 


60 


100 


100 


100.00 


33.32 


60 


| 66.6 


66.64 
100.00 


62.50 
100.00 


25| G 


5 


6+ 


40 


100 


100 


100 


100 


49.98 


49.98 


20 


| 44.4 


26| G 


5 


5+ 


100 


60 


60 


60 


100 


100.00 


33.32 


80 


| 11.1 


66.64 


37.50 


27 1 


B 


5 


6+ 


40 


40 


40 


100 


100 


100.00 


33.32 


100 


| 44.4 


83.30 


100.00 


28 1 


B 


5 


5+ 


40 


100 


60 


100 


100 


100.00 


33.32 


100 


| 33.3 


66.64 


62.50 


29| G 
30| B 


5 
6 


6 
























7 


100 


20 


40 


100 


100 


66.64 


16.66 


40 


| 55.5 


100.00 


100.00 


31| G 


5 


6+ 




















66.64 




32| B 


7 


6+ 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


16.66 


16.66 


40 


| 44.4 


66.64 


87.50 


33| 


G 


5 


6+ 

6+ 


60 


60 


100 
100 


60 


60 


66.64 


49.98 


50 


| 44.4 


83.30 


87.50 


34 1 


G 


6 


60 


60 


60 


100 


66.64 


100.00 


100 


| 66.6 


83.30 


87.50 


351 B 


5 


5+ 












49.98 





60 


| 77.7 


66.64 




361 


G 


6 


6+ 


60 


40 


60 


60 


60 


66.64 


33.32 


50 


| 55.5 


66.64 


100.00 


37| 


G 




























38| B 


5 
5 


5+ 


40 


100 


40 


40 


100 


33.32 


66.64 


50 


| 77.7 


66.64 


50.00 


39| 


G 


7 






















100.00 


40 1 


B 

G 


5 


























41| 


5 


























42] 


G 


5 


5+ 


60 


40 


100 


60 


100 


49.98 


33.32 


50 


| 44.4 


66.64 


50.00 


43! G 


5 


7+ 


60 


100 


40 


60 


100 


33.32 


16.66 


50 




83.30 


87.50 


44| G 


5 


7 


60 


60 


60 


100 


60 


100.00 


33.32 


100 


| 66.6 


83.30 


75.00 


45| 


G 


5 


























46| 


B 


4 
6 
5 


























47| G 
48| B 


6+ 
6+ 




















66.64 


62.50 

5o;oo 




















83.30 


49| B 


5 


























50 1 


B 


5 


6+ 


100 


60 


60 


100 


60 


100.00 


66.64 


80 


| 55.5 


83.30 


100.00 


51| 


B 


5 
6 


























52 1 B 


8+ 


100 


60 


100 


100 


100 


66.64 



39 


100 
39 


| 44.4 
| 37 


100.00 
42 


75.00 
38 


No of cases 


39 


39 


39 


39 


39 


39 


Failure 




! 


















Average 


67.1 


68.7 


68.9 


86.1 


80.5 


60.2 


31.1 


61.0 


| 50 


75.76 


76.9 


M. V. 


21.8 


22.2 


22.2 


19.1 


19.9 


26.7 


12.4 


18.7 


! 15.7 


10.71 


15.8 


P. E. 


18.7 


18.7 


18.7 


16.2 


16.8 


22.6 


10.5 


15.8 


| 13.3 


9.07 


13.4 


P. E. M. 


2.9 


3.0 


3.0 


2.5 


2.7 


3.6 | 1.6 


2.61 


2.1 


1.39 


2.18 



42 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



Table III (2) 



12 13 


u | 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


20 | 


21 


22 | 23 


N 

a 

Xi 

S 

2 

IS 
o 


2 

'o 

o 


2 
o 

V 
•r-1 

O 


u 
o 

fa 


c 
o 

8 

fa 


o 

u 

-P 

o 

fa 


c 
3 

ft 

m 

CO 

> 


c 

d 

ft 

03 

>> 
u 
5 

S 
< 


9) 
ft 

a 

03 

G 

o 

'+» 

c 

cu 
■5 

< 


to 

> 
'■5 

a 

«! 

•2-C 

C to 

< 


.8 

.5>> 

. s 

5 


ft 
J 

35 

g 

o 

■+» 

a 
tu 
•(J 


> 

a 

a 

£'* 

G co 

< 


u 

<i> 

G 
G 

S 

'3 
H 


1| 


28.56 


20 


14.28| 50 








2.50| 1.53| 


.97 


.72| 


.72|22 


2| 33.33| 


27.15 


40 


14.28| 30 


80 


80 


3.03| .79| 


2.24 


•74| 


.72(26 


31100.00| 


28.56 


40 


28.56| 80 


80 


40 


5.00| 1.80 


3.20 


.71 


.75118 


4| 


o 1 


14.28 


40 


57.12| 40 


100 


60 


5.00| 2.50J 


2.50 


-1 


|16 


6| 


33.33] 


28.56 


20 


42.84 


100 


80 


60 


2.27| 1.63 


.65 


1 


6J 


100.00) 


42.84 


40 


14.28 


40 


80 


20 


2.00| 1.00 


1.00 


.64 


.47134 


7| 










40 




60 


2.17| .81 


1.36 


.57 


.52|29 


8| 


100.00 


42.84 


40 


42.84 


40 


60 


60 


4.34| 1.50 


2.84 


.77 


.67132 


9|100.00 


28.56 


40 


57.12 


80 


60 


60 


4.00| 1.28 


2.72 


1.00 


• 96|37 


10| ! 


28.56 


40 


28.56 


80 


60 





2.30| 1.26 


1.04 


.48 


.68|34 


11|100.00 


42.84 


80 


57.12 


30 


60 


o 


4.17| 1.40 


2.77 


.66 


.65|22 


12| 33.33 


14.28 


20 


14.28 


50 





o 


3.39| .50 


2.89 


.64 


.72(29 


13 1 66.66 
14| 66.66 


28.56 


40 


28.56 


40 








2.50| 1.10 


1.40 


.92 


1.15|34 


57.12 


60 


57.12 


40 


80 


60 


2.38| .95 


1.43 


.90 


.91|34 


15! 


100.00 


42.84 


40 


42.84 


50 












133 


16| 










40 







1.81| 1.38 


.48 


.83 


.70)24 


17|100.00 


57.12 


40 


100.00 


80 


80 


40 


4.00| 1.63 


2.37 


1.04 


.85|36 


18| 33.33 


42.84 


40 


28.56 


40 


60 


100 


5.00| 1.50 


3.50 


.73 


• 50|22 


19] 66.66 


57.12 


40 


42.84 




60 


40 


2.501 2-50 





.69 


.55|31 


20! 66.66 


57.12 


40 


28.56 


70 








5.00| 1.20 


3.80 


.91 


.68|35 


21| 66.66 


42.84 


20 


57.12 


30 


80 


40 


5.00| 2.20 


2.80 


.90 


.83)38 


22| 33.33 


74.40 


60 


75.68 


60 


60 


80 


3.391 1.20 


2.19 


.70 


.71|28 


231100.00 


42.84 


60 


28.56 


100 


80 


60 


3.331 1-69 


1.64 


.62 


.48124 


24|100.00 


42.84 


80 


28.56 


80 


80 


40 


3.03| 1.20 


1.83 


.76 


.74)27 


25 1 66.66 


100.00 


60 


42.84 


100 


80 


60 


4.17| 1.30 


2.87 


.89 


.67|34 


261 66.66 


28.56 


60 


28.56 










2.38| 1.60 


.78 


.79 


.64(26 


27| 33.33 


28.56 


40 


28.56 


100 








4.75| 1.48 


3.27 


.72 


.50)25 


28| 66.66 


42.84 


40 


57.12 


40 


60 


60 


1.33| .83 


.50 


.83 


.47)26 


29 1 








40 














28 


30| 66.66 


28.56 


60 


14.28 


40 


60 


60 


7.69| 3.26 


4.43 


.99 


.76 


28 


31| 66.66 














1.701 1.28 


.42 


.55 


.55 




32f 66.66 


42.84 


20 


42.84 


50 


60 


40 


5.00| 2.32 


2.68 


.55 


.21 


19 


331 66.66 


28.56 


20 


42.84 


40 


80 


80 


2.43| .97 


1.46 


| .73 


.51 


29 


34| 66.66 


57.12 


40 


14.28 


40 


60 


60 


3.70| 1.25 


2.45 


| .82 


.58 


29 


35| 66.66 


28.56 


20 





40 





1 o 


3.81| 2.00 


1.81 


1 -71 


.36 


36 


36|100.00 


42.84 


40 


42.84 


60 


60 


| 60 


2.94| 1.81 


1.13 


| .61 


.57 


17 


37| 
























38| 33.33 


42.84 


20 


57.12 


40 





| 40 


4.00| 1.53 


2.47 


| .30 


.56 


36 


39] 








| 90 


20 












32 


40 1 
























41 
























42 1 66.66 


57.12 


| 60 


57.12 


30 


1 20 


| 60 


3.33| 1.81 


1.52 


.75 


.63 


26 


43| 66.66 


42.84 


| 20 





| 30 


| 60 


| 20 


2.85| 1.07 


1.78 


| .63 


| .79 


13 


44| 66.66 


57.12 


| 20 


42.84 


| 50 


| 60 


| 60 


2.94| 1.53 


1.41 


| 1.25 


.38 


20 


45 






















1 




46 




















1 




47 




















i 1 




48 












| 20 


| 40 






1 




49 1 

50 1 66.66 


















1 




28.56 


| 20 


57.12 


| 50 


| 60 


| 40 


2.00| 1.08| .92 


| .54 


.22 


24 


511 














1 1 


I 




52 | 66.66 


42.84 


|100 


85.68 


| 90 


| 80 


| 40 


| 5.00| 2.27| 2.73 


| 1.04 


| .50 


29 


No. | 36 


37 


[ 37 


37 


37 


28 


| 28 


40 140 |40 


[38 


[38 


42 


F. | 












1 


1 




A. | 65.7 


| 42.45 


| 41.60 


40.91 


| 55.5 


168.57 


| 52.1 


| 3.44| 1.50| 2.0 


| .78 


.62 
1 .14 

1 -11 
| .01 


28.2 
4.9 
4.18 
.63 


M.V.| 19.25 
P.E. | 16.26 


| 11.3 
| 9.55 
| 1.51 


| 14.25 
| 12.04 


| 17.73 
| 14.99 


| 19.6 
1 16.6 
| 6.3 


1 12 


| 16.1 


| 1.03| .38| .9 


.14 


| 10.1 


| 13.3 


,87| .32| .7 


.11 


PEM 


2.67 


| 1.98 


2.46 


| l.S 


| 2.5 


' .12| .051 .1 


.01 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDKEN 



43 



Table III (3) 



| 24 25 


26 


27 


28 


29 | 30 


31 1 


32 | 


33 | 34 | 


35 


36 


u 

CD 

a 

3 

2 

IS 
o 


< 
■ 

>> 

H 
5 

n 


i 

« 
■ 

>, 

sa 

<u 

H 


4* 

a 

CD 

B 


M 

rH 
01 

8 
a 

CD 
+a 
03 


h3 

CO 
CO 
CD 

-3 
s 

03 


CM 

CO 
CO 

9 

g 

CD 

3 

+5 
03 


PS 

-p 

CD 

CO 

u 
cfl 

H 


u 
EH 


u 

CD 

■E 

CD 

s 

o 

u 

a 
qq 


f 

CD 

s 



s 

d 

a 
>i 

Q 


u 

CD 

■(J 
CD 

1 

O 

S 
a 

c 
>> 
Q 


< 
>> 

CD 


M 

CD 

w 


1 | F 


| FIO 


| 1 


1 


| 1 


1 i ! 


902 | 


7.5| 8.5 | 


383.0| 
769. Of 





2 |212 


| F| 60 


2 


1 | 


3.0 ] 1 


i 1 


656 | 


9 | 7 | 


40 


3 | F 


F | 20 


1 1 


1 1 


8.0 | 2 


2 1 


656 | 


9 | 8 |312.0| 54 


4 |125 


|211 


80 


2 


1 


14.0 | 3 


2 1 


720 | 


7 | 7 | 


|111 


5 | F 


| 85 


70 


1 


1 


15.0 | 3 


3 1 


902 


7 | 7 


[204 


6 | F 


F 


50 


1 


1 | 


11.5 | 2 


2 1 


1066 | 


10.5| 9 | 


222.0|222 


7 | F 


1 F 


1 


1 


8.0 | 3 


1 o | 


492 | 


7 |10 | 


| 66 


8 | 75 


145 


30 


3 


2 1 


11.0 | 4 


3 1 


1148 | 


11 |12 1 


566.0[232 


9 | F 


F 


40 


1 


1 


7.5 | 2 


1 | 


984 


8 | 7 h 


222.0|175 


10 |170 


F 


50 








| 3 


1 | 


492 


6 | 5 | 


500.0| 60 


11 | F 


F 


80 


1 | 


1 | 


7.0 | 2 


1 


902 | 


8 | 6 |250.0| 66 


12 | F 


F 


60 


1 1 





2.0 | 




720 |: 


11 | 9 | 


147.0| 55 


13 | F 


280 


80 


3 1 


3 1 


9.5 | 3 


3 1 


1312 |" 


13 |12 


|178 


14 | F 


F 


60 


1 | 


1 


3.0 | 3 


2 1 


738 | 


9 | 8 |] 


178.0| 66 


15 |100 


60 




2 1 




15.0 | 2 




401 | 


8 | |500.0|178 


16 | 80 


90 




1 ( 


1 


7.0 | 3 


3 1 


820 |] 


L0 | 9 |] 


L19.0|166 


17 | F 


115 


50 


1 | 


1 | 


6.0 | 3 


2 I 


656 | 


6 ' 


6 |500.0|2 
5 1666.01 


17 


18 | F 


142 | 


20 


1 | 


2 1 


7.0 | 2 


3 1 


720 | 


6 1 


61 


19 | F 


F 


50 






1 3 


2 I 


401 | 


5 | 5 |250.0| 


4 


20 | 56 


F 


80 


2 1 


2 I 


9.5 | 3 


2 I 


656 | 


6 | 5 | 


83.31 


74 


21 |123 


110 | 


50 


1 | 


1 | 


10.0 | 2 


3 1 


720 | 


7 | 6 |126.0| 83 


22 | F 


56 | 


70 


1 | 


o 1 


7.0 | 1 


i M 


L168 | 


9.5| 9.5 |] 


.75.01 200 

79.0| 66 


23 | 35 


120 


50 


o 1 


o ! 


3.0 | 4 


4 1 






24 | 68 


F | 


90 


1 | 


2 1 


L3.0 | 3 


l | 


984 


8 |10 |125.0| 74 


25 | F 


F 


30 


2 1 


2 1 


7.0 | 3 


2 I 


656 | 


3 | 4 | 


|250 
L66Tor~58 
L33.0| 55 


26 | 40 


F 




2 1 


1 


9.0 | 3 


2 1 


738 | 


5 | 6 | 


27 | 95 


F 





o 1 


1 | 


1.0 | 1 


1 | 


460 | 


6 | 7 |] 


28 |130 


F 


70 


1 | 


1 | 


8.0 | 2 


1 1 


984 | 


L0 | 9 |: 


256.0] 51 


29 | F 






1 | 


1 | 


| 2 


1 | 


246 | 


5 | 5 | 


o 1 


30 |120 


F ! 


90 


1 | 


1 | 


9.5 | 2 


2 1 


574 |] 


.2 | 7 |357.0|200 


31 | 
















1 1 1 


32 | 19 


250 


100 


o 1 





j 


1 


738 |] 


.2 |10 |526.0|125 


33 |173 


438 


60 


o 1 


o 1 


5.0 | 1 


1 


738 | 


7 | 9 [277.0] 


62 


34 | F 


81 | 


40 


2 1 


1 1 


7.0 | 2 


2 I 


720 |1 


1 |10 |333.0| 


35 | F 


F | 


80 





o 1 


6.0 | 3 


3 1 


656 |1 


1 | 9 | 


|222 


36 | F 


F | 


40 


2 1 


1 1 


8.0 | 3 


2 1 


902 | 


6 | 6 |333.0|222 


37 | 
















1 1 1 


38 | F 


F | 


60 


2 1 


2 1 


| 2 


1 | 


246 | 


6 | 5 | 


| 69 


39 | 
















1 1 


40 | 






o 1 


o 1 


| 2 


2 1 




1 1 


41 | 


















1 




42 |107 


F | 


50 





o 1 


| 2 


2 1 


984 


6 | 5 |196.0| 


70 


43 | F 


F | 


70 


1 | 


2 1 


2.0 | 2 


2 1 


574 | 


8 | 5 |250.0| 


44 | F | 


64 | 


40 


1 | 


1 


8.0 | 2 | 


2 1 


492 | 


5 | 5 [100.0] 


45 | 




1 










1 1 1 


46 | 




! | 










1 1 1 


47 | | 






1 | 


1 | 


6.0 | 1 | 


o 1 




1 1 1 


48 | | 
















1 


49 | | 






1 | 


1 | 


5.5 | 2 | 


2 1 






I 


50 | F | 


109 


60 | 


1 





5.0 | 2 


1 | 


656 


6 | 8 [166 


58 


51 | 


















1 




52 |171 | 


395 | 


70 | 


3 1 


3 1 


8.0 | 3 | 


3 |1 


394 |1 


| 8 |500.0| 


No. | 18 


17 | 


36 | 


42 | 


41 |< 


12 [43 | 


43 | 


40 \4 


[40 | 


40 


40 


P. | 23 


23 | 














1 1 7 


A. |101 | 


164 * 


54.1| 


1.19| 


1 | 


6.47| 2.21| 


1.74| 


760 | 


7.8| 7.33|3 


07.09|125 
52.821 65 
29.181 55 


M.V. | 41.9 


33 | 


20.2| 


.64| 


.56| 


3.29| .69| 


.77| 


204.01| 


1.9| 1.41J1 
1.6| 1.19|1 


P.E. | 35.4 | 


28 | 


17.1| 


.53| 


.47| 


2.48| .58| 


.65| 


172.44| 


PEM. | 8.35 


7 1 


2.8| 


.08| 


.07| 


.42| .08| 


.09| 


27.22| 


•25| .19| 


22.51| 9.3 



44 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



Table III (4) 



| 37 38 | 39 


40 


41 | 42 


43 | 44 


45 46 | 47 | 48 


49 


501 51 


u 

S 

3 

2 

IS 
o 


H 


i 

O 

CO 

w 


i 


V 
»J 
J> 

c 

i 

3 


4J 

M 
1 

a 

a 

T3 

3 
i-a 


i 

e 
.2 

a 


• 

a 

o 

3» 

w 


OB 

ft 

H 

s 

.52 

cc5 

S 
o 

3 


41 
>> 

a 

.2 
"+» 

S 1 
o ts 

fw 

< 


3 

o 

2 

3 


u 
a 
o 
M 

s 

u 
o 


B 

.2 
o 

O 

u 

ft 

V 

« 

V 

c 


V 

a 

S 


73 

u 

O 

a 


-a 

3 

o 

u 

O) 

-p 
c 

■ 

X 

o 

c 


CO 

3 

t 

o 


1 | 50 | | F| F| S| N| 50.00| 51 |27.5| A| — 1 


+11 - 


2 | 50 |60 |32 | 10| 0| 0| S | S | 83.30|185 |20.0| A| A 


+ 5| +2 


3 | 50 |80 | | 10| +| +| S| S| 50.00|178 |47.5| + 1| +1 


+2| +1 


4 |100 |60 | | 10 


0| 


S| N |100.00| 69 |65.0| +2| +1 


+ 2| +2 


5 |100 |60 132 j 10 


0| + 


S| N|100.00|277 |85.0 


+2| +1 
+2| +1| 


+9| A 

+2| +4 


6 | 50 | |32 | 10 


01 + 


S | S | 33.32|256 |55.0 


7 I 50 | | | 


1 


| | 33.32| |20.0| + 1| A 


1 A 


+2 


8 | 50 |60 |25 


+1 + 


S | S | 83.301333 |55.0| A | A 


—1 


+5 


9 |100 (80 |32 10 


+1 + 


S | S | 66.64|172 |70.0| +1| A 


+ 1 


A 


10 | (20 |23 | 10 


0| 


S | S | 16.66|119 ]17.5| — 1| — 1 


—1 


+ 1 


11 | 50 |20 |32 


10 


+1 o 


S | S | 16.66| 76 |42.5| +1| A 


A 


+2 


12 | |40 |32 


10 


+1 o 


S | S | 66.64| 83 |25.0| +1| A 


A 


+2 


13 | 50 |40 |32 


10 


0| 


S | N| 66.64|200 |70.0| +1| A 


—1 


+4 


14 


|100 |40 |32 


101 S | S | 33.32| 78 |70.0| A | A 


A 


+ 4 


15 


1 50 | 


S | S | 83.30|238 |87.5| A | A 


A 


+ 2 


16 | |80 


| | | | | 66.64| 61 | | +1| A 


+ 5 


+4 


17 |100 |80 |32 


10| 0| 0| S| N| 83.30|222 |90.0l +2| +2 


+9 


+5 


18 |100 |20 |18 


101 +1 0| S | N|300. 00(151 (55.01 +2| +1 


+ 1 


+4 


19 | 50 | |32 10| +| +| S| S| 33.32| 51 |60.0| + 1| A 


+5 


+3 


20 |100 |40 |32 | F| +| +1 S| SI 83.30(192 |45.0| +1| A 


+ 1 


+4 


21 |100 |40 |32 | 10| +| 0| S | S | 83.30|274 |85.0| A| A 


+4 


+7 


22 [100 |60 |32 | 10| 0| 0| S | S|100.00|263 |60.0 


+2| +2 


+ 1 


+ 8 


23 | |20 |32 10j +1 01 S j S |100.00|270 


+ 2| +1 


+ 10 


+ 4 


24 |100 |20 (32 | 10| +| 0| S | N | 83.30|333 |37.5 


A| A 


A 


+ 3 


25 | |20 |32 | 10| 0| 0| S | S | 66.64|217 |35.0 


A, 


A 


+ 5 


+ 1 


26 |100 |40 |32 10| + | +1 S| S| 33.32| 71 |25.0 


+ 1 


+ 1 


A 


+ 1 


27 | 50 |40 |32 


101 +1 01 S | N| 33.32(227 [40.0 


+1 


A 


+1 


+2 


28 | |20 | 


F | +| 0! S | N| 66.641 98 |55.0 


A 


A 


A 


+ 5 


29 | | | 


| | | | | 16.66| |12.5 


+ 1 


A | A] A 


30 |100 |40 |32 


10| 0| Of S | N| 66.641 87 |70.0 


+ 1 


A 


+ 10| +3 


31 | 50 | 


| | 83.301175 | 


+ 1 


+ 1 


1 


32 (100 |80 |32 


10| +| 0| S | N| 50.00| 80 |12.5 


—1 


—1 


—2 


—1 

+2 


33 |100 |60 |32 


10] 0| +| S | N| 83.301166 |27.5 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+2 


34 | 50 120 |32 10| S| S| 83.30| 69 |85.0 


A 


A 


A 


+3 


35 |100 |20 |32 | 10| +1 +1 S| N| 16.661 |15.0 


A 


A 


A 


—1 


36|100 |20 |32 | 10| +| +| S| S |100.00|142 |65.0 


A 


—1 


A 


+2 


37 | | | | | | | | | | | 






38 |100 |40 |32 | 10| +| + | S| S |100.00| 66 |27.5 


A 


A 


+2 


+4 


39 1 | |17 I 10| 


| 66.64| 


+2 


+ 1 


+2 


+ 2 


40 | 50 | | 


| | | 










41 1 | 1 II 


1 1 1 1 1 










42 |100 |20 |32 | 10| 


0) S | N| 33.32| 75 1 50 . 


A 


A 


+2 


+ 2 


43 | 50 | |32 | 10| 


0| S | N| 33.32|156 |30.0 


+2 


+1 


A 


+2 


44 |100 |40 |28 | 10| 


0| S | N|100.00| 45 (60.0 


+2 


+ 1 


+ 11 


+ 1 


45 | | | || 


1 1 1 










46 | | 


III | 










47 |100 ( | | | 


| | |100.00| 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 11 


+4 


48 | | | | | | +1| A 


+ 1 


— 


49 | | 


| | 




1 1 1 1 










50 |100 |40 


32 | 10| + 





S | N| 66.64|175 )30.0 


+ 1 


A 


+2 


+ 4 


51 I 1 


1 




| |100.00| 










52 |100 |80 


32 


10| 


1 o 


S| N|100.00|200 |70.0 


+2 


+ 1 


+4 


+4 


No. | 38 |36 


38 


88 




| 45 | 42 (38 










F. | 4 | 3 


3 


8 




II 1 3 | 










A. | 70 |41.8 


29 






| 67.02|158 |48.7 










M.V. | 22 |18.7 


4.5 






| | 23.35| 70.9 |19.8 










P.E. | 19.3|15.36 


3.8 


1 


| | 19.74| 59.93|16.7 










PEM. | 2.8| 2.67 


.64 


1 1 


| 2.94| 9.6 | 2.6 











ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 



45 



+ 



o £>. 



: + 



+ 



+ 



; + 



+ 



+ 



© -a 

ov to 

© O 



51 (O W 
© C5 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



h-lOO 

•t*. ko 

oo ^ 



©! to © 

o o> © 



tol toleo 
©! to ,m 



L J. 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



to 00 
-3 oo 



Healy-B 



Judgment 



Steadiness 
1-R 



Steadiness 
1-L 



Steadiness 
2-R 



Target-R 



Target-L 



Spirometer 



Grip-R 



Grip-L 



Healy — A 



Healy-B 



Wiring 



String Game 



Suggestion 
Length 



Suggestion 
Weight 



Suggestion 
Odor 



Suggestion 
Taste 



Automatism 1 



Automatism 2 



Maxfield Cube 



Form Board 



+ 



+ 



+ + + 



+ 



+ 



+ + 



+1+ 

CK 00 



Line Reproduc 



Binet+ 



Stanford 
Revision-f 



Knox-Pintner 
Cube+ 



Porteus 
Maze-I- 



© © o o o 



wt o t~> t_? <~j i-»i 

© © © © © rslue 



Percentiles 



Gray 



Red 



© ©' © 
©i ©i© 



to l-> 

(-• -a 

INS' 00 



On © 00 00 



) oo 



Green 



Yellow 



Lines 



Form 



Position 



© oo 1 oo'oo 00 



Weight 



Words 



Sentences 



Color 



Objects 



Forms 



Position 



Pictures 



Visual Span 



Auditory Span 



Attention 
Simple 



Attention 
Discrim. 



Attention 
Simple 



Attention 
Discrim. 



Heilbronner 



Healy-A 



g 



46 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

70 percentile score for red, blue, and gray. In no case was there a 
complete failure though the percentile was 20 for red, blue, green, 
and gray. The individual scores and percentile scores are presented 
in Tables III and IV. 

Test No. 6. Perception of Differences in Length. The method of 
perception of small differences was again used. A gray card 2 1/2 by 
4!/2 inches had drawn on it six vertical lines % of an inch apart, the 
shortest 1 inch long and the others increasing regularly in length 
by % of an inch. The child was given six small gray cards IV2 
inches wide, on each of which was drawn a line similar to one of the 
six lines on the large card. The procedure was exactly that used in 
the color perception test. The examiner pointed to the shortest line 
on the card containing the six lines and then to the other lines in 
order, saying each time, ''Find the line just like this." 

A credit of 16.6 was given for each line matched correctly, 100 
constituting a perfect score. Thirty-nine children were again tested, 
the 70 percentile group making a perfect score, the 50 percentile a 
score of 66.44 and the percentile 0. The average score was 60.2, M. 
V. 26.7, P. E. 22.6. The group did not succeed so well here as with 
the color perception tests. (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 7. Perception of Differences in Form. Again the method 
of perception of small differences was used. A series of six gray 
figures was mounted on black cardboard. The first figure was a IV2 
inch square. The base lines and heights of all figures were 1% 
inches but the upper side diminished by 1/16 of an inch in each 
succeeding figure, both ends of the line being shortened by 1/32 of 
an inch. Similar figures were drawn on small cards, one figure on 
each card. These were given to the child and he was asked, as in the 
preceding tests, to ' ' find one like this ' ' as the examiner pointed suc- 
cessively to the mounted figures on the large card. 

Credit of 16.6 was given for each correct matching. Thirty-nine 
children were tested, and the perfect score of 100 was reached only 
by the 100 percentile of the group; the 50 percentile scored 33.32 
and the 20 percentile score was 0. The average score was 31.19, M. 
V. 12.4, P. E. 10.5. The children found greater difficulties in this 
test than in any of the preceding tests. (Tables III, IV,). 

Test No. 8. Perception of Position .The materials were again five 
lines. These were two inches in length, drawn above a base line on a 
strip of gray cardboard 12% inches long. The first line was hori- 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 47 

zontal and parallel with the base line; the second was tilted up at 
the left end ; the third, fourth and fifth lines were increasingly tilt- 
ed. Five lines similarly placed were drawn on smaller cards. As in 
the other perception tests, the child was asked to find a line like each 
in turn as it was pointed out. The test was repeated with lines in 
the vertical direction. 

A credit of 10 for each matching was given. Thirty-nine children 
were tested, the 90 percentile making a perfect score; the 50 per- 
centile, 50, and the percentile 20. The average score was 61, M. V. 

18.7, P. E. 15.8. (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 9 Perception of Weight. This was quite a difficult per- 
formance for the little ones. Tin pill boxes were used which were 
weighted with shot. One, weighing ten grams, was used as a 
standard weight and nine others compared with it; four of these 
were heavier, increasing by amounts of two grams each; four were 
lighter, decreasing by amounts of two grams each; and one weigh- 
ed the same as the standard. The child was given the standard 
weight in one hand and then handed another and asked, "Is this 
heavier, lighter or just the same ? ' ' When the opinion was given, the 
child was allowed to place one box on one pan of a scale and one on 
the other pan to see whether his judgment was correct. Without this 
procedure it was hard to hold the children's attention to the test; 
with it, they greatly enjoyed the game. There were nine judgments, 
11.1 being the credit for each. No one child attained a perfect score 
and only one of the 37 children tested reached the 100 percentile, 

88.8. The 50 percentile score was 55.5 and the percentile score 11.1. 
The average score was 50, M. V. 15. 7, P. E. 13.3. (Tables III, IV,). 

b. Memory 

The tests for memory were six in number. They tested the im- 
mediate memory span for number words, for words connected in 
sentence form, for colors, for familiar objects, for geometric forms, 
for position, and for pictured objects. It was necessary to confine 
the word memory tests to the oral field as the children had not yet 
learned to read. 

Test No. 10. Memory for Words. The span for number words was 
tested as follows. The examiner said to the child, ' ' I am going to say 
some words and after I finish I want you to say just what I have 
said. ' ' Then she pronounced two numbers, and if the child succeed- 



48 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAKE 

ed in repeating them, she tried a series of. three, then of four and 
so on, increasing each time by one until the child made an error in 
repeating. He was then given two more chances to repeat a list of 
equal length and if he succeeded, a list longer by one word was 
used. When the child failed three successive times to repeat lists of 
equal length, his span was placed at the longest list which he had 
succeeded in repeating. As lists containing six numbers were repeat- 
ed by four children in the group and as a span for five numbers ia 
shown by Binet 3 to be an eight year performance and a span of 
three, a four year performance, six was considered a perfect span 
for our children and a score of 100 was assigned to it, 16.66 being 
given for each number repeated correctly in the longest series re- 
peated perfectly. Forty-two children were tested. The 100 percen- 
tile made a perfect score; the 60, 70, 80 and 90 percentile made a 
score of 83.3 (span 5) ; the percentile score was 49.9 (span 3) the 
50 percentile score was 66.6 (span 4). The average score was 75.7 
M. V. 10.7, P. E. 9. (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 11. Memory for Sentences. For measuring the memory 
span for words combined in sentence form the group of sentences 
prepared by Binet was used. The highest achievement of the group 
was shared by eight children, who repeated sentences containing six- 
teen words. A score of 100 was assigned to this performance and 
6.25 given for each word in the longest sentence repeated. Thirty- 
eight children were tested, the 80, 90 and 100 percentiles making a 
perfect score ; the percentile score was 37.5 and the 50 percentile 
score was 75. The average score for the group was 76.9 ; M. V. 15.8 ; 
P. E. 13.4 (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 12. Color Memory. For testing color memory, the mater- 
ials used were twelve white cards, 3 by 5 inches, in the center of each 
of which a 1 inch square of colored paper was pasted, and a card 
5 by 6 inches, on which twelve similar squares were pasted. Two of 
the small cards were shown to the child, who was told to look at them 
well because he would be asked to pick out these colors on a card 
containing these and other colors. The small cards were removed 
and the large one substituted and the child asked to point out the 
colors which he had just seen. If he failed, he was given two more 
chances with two different colors each time. If he succeeded in one 
of the three trials, the procedure was repeated with three and with 
four colors until the child failed to recognize three series each con- 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 49 

taining the same number of colors. His span was taken to be the 
largest number of colors he remembered in one of three trials. 

Thirty-six children were tested and three proved to be the largest 
span reached. One hundred was assigned as the perfect score for 3 
and 33.3 was accredited for each color remembered in the longest 
series correctly matched. The 80, 90, and 100 percentiles attained a 
score of 100; the percentile failed entirely; the 50 percentile 
made a score of 16.66 (span 2) . The average was 65.7 ; M. V. 19.25 ; 
P. E. 16.26. (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 13. Memory for Familiar Objects. For testing memory 
for familiar objects, the following objects were used: book, twine, 
pencil, envelope, key, black-board eraser, box, pocket-book, nickel, 
ring, bag, and handkerchief. The objects were all placed in a large 
pasteboard box. Groups of the objects were placed on the lid of 
the box, shown to the child, then replaced in the box while he waited 
in another part of the room. He was then asked to pick those he had 
seen from the complete group. The procedure followed was identical 
with that used for the color memory test. The child was given three 
chances with each group containing a given number of objects un- 
til he failed in three successive trials with the given number of ob- 
jects, one success in any group constituting success with that group. 

Thirty-seven children were tested. Seven objects being the great- 
est number remembered by any one child, a score of 100 was as- 
signed to the span of 7 and 14.28 was accredited for each object re- 
membered in the maximal span attained. The perfect score was 
made only by the 100 percentile, the 80 and 90 percentile scores be- 
ing 57.12 (span 4), the percentile score being 14.28 (span 1) and 
the 50 percentile score being 42.84 (span 3). The average was 42.4, 
M. V. 11.3, P. E. 9.5. (Tables III, IV). 

Test No. 14. Memory for Form. Materials used in testing memory 
for form were chosen from the Bradley box of forms. They consisted 
ox a sphere, spheroid, cube, ovoid, two cylinders, two pyramids, 
circle, cone, square and prism. The procedure was exactly the same 
as that used in testing memory for objects. Thirty-seven children 
were tested ; five was the greatest number of forms remembered ; 100 
was therefore assigned as the score for a span of 5 forms, and 20 for 
each form remembered in the maximal score attained. The perfect 
score was made by only one child. The 80 and 90 percentiles made 
scores of 60, (span 4), the percentles a score of 20 (span 1) and 



50 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

the 50 percentile a score of 40 (span 2). The average was 41.6, M. 
V. 14.25, P. E. 12. 

Test No. 15. Memory for Position. The test for memory of posi- 
tion is one used by Rossolimo. 17 Ten white cards, '6 inches square, 
were used. These were ruled in nine 1 inch squares. On card 1 a 
black dot was placed in the center of the lower right square; on 
card 2, a black dot was placed in the center of the middle left 
square; on card 3, two black dots were placed, one in center of 
middle right and one in center of lower left squares; on card 4, 
black dots were placed in center of upper center, middle right, and 
lower left squares; on card 5, black dots were placed in center of 
upper left, upper center, and lower right squares ; on card 6, black 
dots were placed in center of upper left, upper right and lower left 
squares ; on card 7, black dots were placed in center of middle left 
ai?d middle center, upper right and lower right squares; on card 8, 
dots were placed in center of middle left, lower left, upper center 
and middle right squares ; on card 9, dots were placed in upper left, 
middle center, middle right, lower right and lower center squares; 
on card 10, dots were placed in center of upper left, middle left, 
upper center, lower center and lower right squares. Squares of 
paper ruled exactly like the cards but not containing the dots were 
given each child. Card 1 was shown to him and he was told to re- 
member where the dot was because he would be asked to draw it on 
one of the papers. The card was removed and the child drew the dot 
on the ruled sheet. This procedure was repeated until all cards were 
shown. 

Thirty-seven children were tested. No children succeeded in re- 
membering the positions of the dots on cards 8, 9, and 10. There- 
fore the score of 100 was given for success with the first 7 cards and 
14.28 assigned for each card successfully reproduced. Only one 
child made a perfect score ; the 70. 80, and 90 percentile scores were 
57.1 (four cards) the percentile was and the 50 percentile was 
42.8 (three cards). The average score for the group was 40.9, M. V. 
17.7, P. E. 14.9. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 16. Memory for Pictured Objects. Material for testing 
memory for pictured objects was found ready-made in a game con- 
sisting of 72 little colored pictures of familiar objects such as a 
horse, cat, kite, doll, table, etc. and 6 cards, on which are duplicated 
the smaller pictures, 12 small ones on each large card. The proced- 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 51 

ure used is the same as that described in tests for color, object and 
form memory, the small pictures being shown in groups of two, 
four, etc. and the child being required to point to the same pictures 
on a card which was exposed as soon as the small pictures were re- 
moved. Three successive failures in a group consisting of a given 
number of pictures constituted a failure and the span was recorded 
as the largest number of objects recognized. Forty children were 
tested ; four children recognized each object in a group of ten. This 
was the best record and a score of 100 was assigned to it, 10 being 
given for each picture in the largest group recognized. The 100 per- 
centile made a perfect score (span 10), the percentile, a score of 
30 (span 3), the 50 percentile a score of 40 (span 4). The average 
score for the group was 55.5, M. V. 19.6 and P. E. 16.6. 

c. Attention 

The tests selected to examine attention were nine in number: a 
test of visual span, a test of auditory span, two designed to test 
simple attention, two to test discriminative attention, two to test 
disparate attention, and one to test the scope of attention. It was 
found necessary to omit the last three tests mentioned from our 
group results, as the probable errors for all three tests were too 
large. 

Tests No. 17 and 18. Visual and Auditory Span. The test for 
visual span was very simple. Parallel lines were drawn on cards, 
two on one card, three on another, four, five and six on still others. 
A card was exposed for an instant; it was then removed and the 
child asked how many lines there were on the card. This was con- 
tinued until his maximal span was ascertained. 

The auditory span was judged in a similar way, a series of taps 
with a pencil on the desk being the stimulus. Twenty-eight children 
took these tests. Five was the largest group of lines and of taps per- 
ceived by any child. A score of 100 was assigned to this perform- 
ance, and 20 given for each number in the highest span attained. 
For both tests the 100 percentile score is 100 and the 50 percentile 
score is 60 ; the score for visual span is 20 and for auditory span 
0. The average for visual span is 68.57, M. V. 12, P. E. 10.1; the 
average for auditory span is 52.1, M. V. 16.1, P. E. 13.3. 

Tests No. 19, 20, 21 and 22. Simple and Discriminative Atten- 
tion. Two tests for discriminative attention were used ; the first was 
a cancellation test. For it the Woodworth and Wells 24 substitution 



52 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

test sheet, geometric forms, was used, the child being told to cross 
out all the squares. This sheet was used rather than the cancellation 
sheets made up of letters or numbers because the figures are larger 
and the eye strain, which is considerable in the letter and number 
tests, is eliminated. 

As two elements of performance, accuracy and rapidity, enter in- 
to the discrimination test, the score is expressed in terms of an 
index of efficiency obtained by use of the formula 

c - w 



c + o 



X 100 



T 

C representing the number of figures crossed, W the number of 
figures wrongly crossed, the number of figures omitted, and T the 
time consumed in performance. 

As for many children of five years the act of crossing out, apart 
from any purpose in so doing, claims much attention and care, and 
as at this age the degree of skill in crossing out varies much from 
child to child, the efficiency index for the discriminative attention 
test depends not only upon the degree of discriminative attention 
attained, but also upon manual dexterity. On this account the effi- 
ciency index attained by one child is hardly comparable with that 
attained by another, as one does not know the relative values of the 
manual dexterity element for the two children. In order to reach a 
truer expression of ability in discriminative attention, the examiner 
introduced another test which calls for the same manual skill, but 
for no discrimination. Twenty squares (there are twenty squares 
on the Woodworth and Wells sheet) were drawn on paper and the 
child asked to cross them out, the time being recorded. This test was 
given in every case before the discrimination test. The index of effi- 
ciency was obtained by the formula given above. As errors and omis- 
sions were few, the index was in most cases 

20 

20- X10 ° 



T 

There were several exceptions, however. A comparison of the effi- 
ciency index attained by any child in the cross-out test with the in- 
dex attained by the same child in the discrimination test will show 
a lowering of the efficiency index, due to the added element of dis- 
crimination, and this difference in efficiency indices is a truer ex- 
pression of efficiency in discrimination than the efficiency index for 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 53 

that test, because it expresses the loss of value in efficiency index 
due to the added task of discrimination. The greater the loss in the 
efficiency index, the less is the efficiency of discriminative attention. 
In the case of one child only was there no difference between the 
two indices. She crossed out all the squares in both the tests and in 
just the same time, 40 seconds. The practice in crossing out in the 
first test may have compensated for discrimination time in the 
second test. In Table III the indices for both tests and the differ- 
ences in the two indices are presented. In the individual profiles 
only the percentile rank for the index of the simple cross-out test 
and the percentile rank of the difference between the two indices are 
represented. Forty children were tested. The 100 percentile score 
for the cross-out was 7.69, the 50 percentile score was 3.33, and the 
percentile score 1.33. The average was 3.44, M. V. 1.03, P. E. 0.87. 
The 100 percentile scores for the discrimination differences was 0, 
the 50 percentile 1.83, the percentile 6.40. The average was 2.0, 
M. V. 0.9, P. E. 0.7. 

Two other comparison tests in simple and discriminative atten- 
tion were taken from Rossolimo. 17 These were perforation tests. In a 
white card, 8V2 by 4 inches, were punched 102 holes in a regular 
pattern. A very heavy piece of felt was placed on the table before 
the child. It was covered by a piece of paper and on top of the 
paper was placed a perforated card. The child was given a stiletto 
and told to punch a hole in the paper through each hole in the card. 
The procedure was illustrated for the child and he was shown that 
the pattern on the card was reproduced on the paper. His perform- 
ance was timed. This test was followed by another, similar to this 
but with a greater number of holes, and the child was asked to 
punch only those holes which were encircled by a line drawn with 
ink. (There were actually 102 of these). The first test is designed to 
test simple attention, the second to test discriminative attention. A 
slight change was made in Rossolimo 's test for the sake of uniform- 
ity. Rossolimo simply uses the reverse side of card one for test two, 
encircling 62 of the holes on the reverse side. It was thought better 
for the sake of comparison of results to require the child to punch 
the same number of holes, and therefore a second card was prepared, 
bearing a design, in which the unit figure of the first card was used 
a greater number of times. 

Efficiency indices were calculated for both of these perforation 



54 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

tests by the use of the formula used in treating the cancellation 
tests. Thirty-eight children were tested. In the simple perforation 
test the 100 percentile score was 1.3, the percentile score 0.48, and 
the 50 percentile score 0.73. The average was 0.78, M. V. 0.14, P. E. 
0.11. In the discrimination test the 100 percentile was 1.15, the 
percentile score 0.21, the 50 percentile 0.64. The average was 0.62, 
M. V. 0.14, P. E. 0.11. The difference in the efficiency indices for 
these two tests were also calculated, and it was found that the 80 
percentile lost nothing in effiiciency index through the added com- 
plication of discrimination, and that the 90 and 100 percentile 
gained in efficiency. In no case did the difference exceed 0.87. These 
results indicate that the increase in ease of punching due to punch- 
ing 102 holes increases the efficiency in the second test enough in 
many cases entirely, and in all cases partially, to compensate for the 
added complication of the task. The differences in the efficiency in- 
dices, therefore, are not so good an indication of the power of dis- 
criminative attention as are the indices of the discrimination test 
itself, and these are therefore given in both tables and profiles. 
(Tables III, IV.) 

Disparate Attention. The two tests of Rossolimo 17 , used to study 
disparate attention, were found unsuitable for such young subjects. 

(d) Imagination. For testing imagination one test was used to 
study the passive form, the Heilbronner u unfinished picture test, 
and four tests to study the active, creative form. These were (1) 
the invention of sentences containing two different words; (2) the 
arrangement of a picture story, both of which proved unsuccessful 
for the purposes of this experiment, and (3) (4), the Healy Fernald 
Puzzles A and B. 

Test No. 23. Heilbronner. The material for this test consists of 13 
series of cards. On all but one card of each series are drawings, in 
varying degrees of incompleteness, of some familiar object, and on 
one card is the completed representation. The cards of each series 
are shown to the child in the order of increasing completeness until 
the object is correctly named. The objects pictured are: windmill 
and telephone (seven drawings each) ; clock, graphophone, butter- 
fly, fireplace and thermometer (six drawings each) ; pencil (five 
drawings) ; book, broom, and lamp (four drawings each), pen 
(three drawings). 

The fireplace and thermometer series were discarded as the com- 






ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 55 

pleted drawing of the fireplace scarcely suggested one, and a ther- 
mometer was not familiar to the group. Each of the 11 remaining 
series was scored according to the number of pictures in each. A 
child who named on the first card the object pictured in seven 
suggestions, received a score of 7; a child who failed to name the 
same object until the sixth card, received a score of 2, losing one for 
each drawing on which he failed to recognize the object. If he failed 
on all seven cards he lost seven points. As two series contained seven 
drawings each, four series six drawings each, one series five draw- 
ings, three series four drawings each, and one series three drawings, 
the maximum score was 58. 

Forty- two children were tested, making an average of 28.2, M. V. 
4.9, P. E. 4.18. The 100 percentile score is 42, the 50 percentile 
score 28, and the percentile 13. (Tables III, IV) . 

Test No. 24, Healy-Fernald Puzzle A. The Healy-Fernald Puzzle 
A 10 is a well-known test of the formboard type. Five small rect- 
angles of varying size must be fitted into a rectangular space. The 
test is scored by recording the number of seconds used by the child 
in solving the puzzle. Ten minutes was the limit of time allowed. 
Forty-one children were tested ; 23 failed to succeed in ten minutes. 
The 18 who succeeded made an average time of 101 seconds, M. 
V. 41.9, P. E. 35.4. The 100 percentile score was 19, the 50 percenti 1 .-; 
107, and the percentile 212. (Table III, IV.) 

Test No. 25, Healy-Fernald Puzzle B. The Healy-Fernald Puzzle 
B 10 is another well-known formboard puzzle. This was also scored 
by recording the time consumed in solving, and ten minutes was the 
limit allowed. Forty children were tested, and again 23 failed to 
solve the puzzle in the ten minute limit. For the 17 who succeeded, 
the average time was 164 seconds, M. V. 32., P. E. 28. The 100 
percentile score was 56, the 50 percentile 115, and the percentile 
438. The achievement in Puzzle A is thus quite superior to the 
achievment in Puzzle B. (Tables III, IV). 

(e) Reasoning. Three tests of reasoning power were tried, only 
one proving valuable for such young children. In the first test the 
child was given a simple figure and told to trace it with his pencil, 
never lifting the pencil, or never drawing over the line twice. This 
was done successfully by only seven of the 36 children tested, and 
the test was excluded from the group report. The second test was 



56 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAKE 

the Winch 23 reasoning test, which also proved too difficult for such 
young children. 

Test No. 26, Reasoning. The third reasoning test 23 was better 
adapted to the children. It called for a judgment of the validity of 
reasoning. The little ones are better able to judge whether someone 's 
else reason is a good one, than they are to initiate a reason of their 
own. The test is given in the following manner : ' ' Some little child- 
ren were asked, ' Why does not grass grow in winter ? ' I am going to 
tell you just what ten of them said and I want you to tell me each 
time whether the answer is a good one, whether it really tells why 
grass does not grow in winter, or whether it does not. One little girl 
said, 'Because it is winter now.' Is that a good reason?", etc. The 
other reasons given were: (2) Christmas is in winter, (3) Because 
it is too cold for it, (4) Because the ground is frozen, (5) We have 
fire in winter, (6) It needs hot sun, (7) Grass is green, (8) Winter 
is cold, (9) Grass grows in summer, (10) We go to school in winter. 
A score of 10 was given for each correct answer. Thirty-six children 
were tested; the average score was 54.1, M. V. 20.2, P. E. 17.1. The 
100 percentile score was 100, the 50 percentile 60, and the per- 
centile 0. (Tables III, IV.) 

i. Psycho-Motor Ability 

We have included in our series a group of tests, the successful 
performance of which depends upon physical and muscular fitness 
and also upon a central motor control. These are neither purely 
physical nor purely mental tests. It is only by tests of this character 
that we can reach an expression of that very essential mental ac- 
tivity — volitional control of movement. Five tests were used; first, 
steadiness of right and left hand while effort is made to hold them 
motionless; second, steadiness of right and left hand while in mo- 
tion ; third, accuracy of aim with right and left hand ; fourth, vital 
capacity; fifth, right and left hand grip. 

Tests Nos. 27 and 28. Steadiness 1. The apparatus used for test- 
ing steadiness of hand while an attempt is made to hold it motion- 
less is furnished by C. H. Stoelting Company, Chicago, and is call- 
ed a steadiness tester. It consists of a metal plate set at an angle of 
45°, and a metal stylus with a wooden handle. The plate is pierced 
by nine holes. The diameters of the holes successively diminish, 
measuring 32, 20, 16, 13, 11, 10, 9, 8 and 7 sixty-fourths of an inch 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 57 

respectively. For the test, this apparatus was wired in circuit with 
a bell which rang when the metal plate was touched with the stylus. 
It was placed on a table in front of the arm the child was to use and 
the child was given the stylus and asked to hold it in the middle of 
the largest hole without touching the sides. Every time a movement 
of the hand brought the stylus in contact with the sides of the hole 
the bell rang. The examiner performed the test for each child to 
show him how to do it. The child was credited with the smallest hole 
in which he succeeded in holding the stylus without contact 
during the fifteen seconds. The holes were numbered according to 
size, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and so on. Each hole was used first by the right 
hand, then by the left. 

The average score for the right hand was 1.19, M. V. .64, P. E., 
.53. For the left hand, the average was 1, M. V. .56, P. E. .47. The 
100 percentile score for both hands was 3, the percentile 0, and the 
50 perceptile score 1. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 29. Steadiness II. The apparatus used in this test for 
steadiness of hand while in motion, was the tracing board, also furn- 
ished by the Stoelting Company. Two straight metal strips are 
mounted on glass, the distance between them diminishing from five 
mm. at one end to two mm. at the other. A wooden rule is mounted 
on the metal strips. A metal stylus completes the apparatus which, 
when wired in circuit with a bell, is ready for use. It is placed on 
the table directly in front of the child, who is given the stylus and 
asked to draw a line from the wide to the narrow end of the slit. If 
the stylus touches the metal strip on either side of the slit, the bell 
rings. The rule allows a reading of the distance covered before con- 
tact is made. The test was made with both hands, the right hand 
moving from left to right and the left hand moving from right to 
left, the position of the board being reversed for each change of 
hand. The score was the longest distance drawn without making con- 
tact, three trials being allowed, after an initial practice. 

Forty-two children were tested. For the right hand the average 
was 6.47, M. V. 3.29, P. E. 2.48. For the left hand the P. E. was 
even greater and the results are omitted in the report. The 100 per- 
centile score for the right hand is 15, the percentile 0, the 50 per- 
centile 7. (Tables III, IV.) 

Tests No. 30 and 31. Target Test. For accuracy of aim, or the 
target test, we used the apparatus described above for tests No. 27 



58 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAKE 

and 28, having the child place the stylus in the first four holes, 
according to rhythmic counting, 1, 2, 3, 4. This test was more suc- 
cessful than the steadiness tests, and the children enjoyed it more. 
Both hands were tested, alternate hands being used for successive 
trials, and three trials being given each hand. The score was the 
smallest hole entered without contact in the best of three trials. 

The average attained by the 43 children tested was, for the right 
hand, 2.21, M. V. .69, P. E. .58, and for the left hand, 1.7, M. V. 
.77, P. E. .65. The 100 percentile score for both hands was 4, the 
percentile 0, and the 50 percentile 2. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 32. Vital Capacity. The vital capacity was measured by 
the "Wet Spirometer furnished by the Stoelting Company. This 
instrument measures the maximal amount of air expelled from the 
lungs after a full deep inspiration. The subject is directed to take 
a deep breath, then to breathe out through a tube placed in the 
mouth and connected with the Spirometer. 

By many this may be considered purely a physical test, but the 
part played by the volitional element is appreciated when the 
test is applied to feeble-minded or to young children. Many of 
these children who have excellent lung capacity cannot control 
their performance sufficiently to demonstrate their capacity by this 
test, simple as it may seem. The records of vital capacity secured 
by H. H. Goddard 8 and E. A. Doll 8 from feeble-minded children at 
Vineland, New Jersey, and by Smedley 20 and De Busk 7 for re- 
tarded public school children, indicate this fact. 

Before letting a child use the spirometer, the experimenter 
always demonstrated the method in order to give the child an idea 
of how to proceed. The effort was made to evoke enthusiasm over 
blowing it high. The enthusiasm was easy to arouse, but it was 
often necessary to allow the child some time to practice in order to 
secure any satisfactory performance. Many found it difficult to 
blow in the mouthpiece and allowed the breath to escape around 
it, while others gave a series of little puffs, not comprehending that 
the cylinder was to be blown up in one expiration. The vital capacity 
of many of our group is no indication of the maximum amount of 
air taken into the lungs or expelled from them, the record repre- 
senting a small fraction of this air. The score in these cases is 
really an index of the mental inability of the child to conform 
to the rules of the test. 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 59 

Forty children were tested, the average score being 760 cc, M. 
V. 204.01, P. E. 172.44. Smedley's 100 percentile score for girls 
of five is 1150. The highest score obtained by girls of five in our 
group is 984, which falls between Smedley's 90 and 100 percentile. 
Smedley's percentile score for the same group is 600, while our 
lowest scores are 246, 401, 492, and 574. There are four six year 
old girls in our group, and all of these have scores lower than 
Smedley's 50 percentile score. (Tables III, IV.) 

Tests 33 and 34. Grip. The grip was measured by the Smedley 
Dynamometer, the instrument being adjusted so that its outer 
frame rested against the fleshy base of the thumb and the inner 
stirrup against the second phalanges of the fingers. The test was 
performed for each child to show him how and he was urged to 
squeeze harder and harder while he was squeezing. The children 
all put forth much effort, but much of this went into grimaces and 
contortions of all sorts. Three trials were given with each hand 
and the hands were used alternately. 

Forty children were tested, the results for the right hand being, 
average 7.8, M. V. 1.9, P. E. 1.6, for the left hand, average 7.33 
M. V. 1.41, P. E. 1.19. For girls of five, Smedley's 100 percentile 
score for right hand is 13, left hand 11.5. Our highest score for 
right hand is 11, left hand 9. Smedley's score for right hand is 
3, for left hand 2. Our lowest score for right hand is 3, for left 
hand 4. For girls of six Smedley's 100 percentile score for right 
hand is 15.5, for left hand 15, while our highest score for right 
hand is 13, for left hand 12 ; Smedley 's score for right hand is 4, 
for left hand 4, our lowest being 6 for both hands. Our one seven 
year old girl gave an eight year 100 percentile score, for the right 
hand test. She had no fingers on the left hand. 

For boys of five Smedley's 100 percentile scores are right hand 
16, left hand 15.5. Our highest scores for the right hand are 11, 
for the left hand 9.5. Smedley's percentile score for the right 
hand is 4, for the left hand 3. Our lowest for the right hand is 5, 
for the left hand 5. For boys of six, Smedley's 100 percentile 
scores are 16.5 for each hand. Our highest scores are 12 for each 
hand. Smedley's percentile score for the right hand is 5, for the 
left hand 4. Our scores are right hand 7, left hand 6. Our seven 
year old boys made a Smedley 50 percentile score with the right 
hand i. e., 12, and a Smedley 20 percentile score with the left hand, 



60 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

i. e., 10. Again we found our oldest children, the retarded ones, 
made the poorest scores. Our scores are consistently lower than 
those of the Smedley tables. 

(g) Learning 

As one of the most essential abilities for a little child is the 
ability to learn, we considered it important to include a group of 
learning tests. Six were used, none of which required ability to 
read or to write. 

A test requiring the substitution of number names in the color 
naming test and one requiring the substitution of numbers for the 
names of geometric forms were discarded as too difficult. 

Tests No. 35 and 36. Healy-Fernald Puzzles A and B. The Healy- 
Fernald 10 Puzzles A and B may be used as learning tests. After 
the first successful placing of the blocks, the child is asked to "Do 
it again," and this procedure is repeated until the task is 
accomplished in the least possible number of moves. The child has 
then learned how the pieces should be placed. The number of 
trials used in this learning process are recorded together with the 
time consumed in the last and perfect placing. The efficiency index 

is computed by the following formula : A X T 10 ° = E. I. A = 
accuracy and T = time. For an accuracy score, 100 is assigned if 
only one trial is required to secure success in the least possible 
number of moves; if two trials are used the accuracy score is 
-y ; if three repetitions are used the accuracy score is^ , and 
so on. The time consumed in the last, or perfect, placing is used as 
the time score. Forty children were tested with A. of whom seven 
failed entirely. For the 33 who finally learned the exact position of 
the blocks, the average efficiency index is 307, M. V. 152, P. E. 129. 
The 100 percentile score is 769, the 50 percentile score 250, the 
percentile 79. (Tables III, IV.) 

The Healy-Fernald Puzzle B 10 was used with 40 children, five 
of whom failed entirely. The remaining 35 attained an average 
efficiency index of 125, M. V. 65, P. E. 54.9. The 100 percentile 
score was 350, the 50 percentile score 83, and the percentile 
score 40. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 37. Wiring. The fourth learning test was suggested by 
the interest the little boys took in the wiring of the apparatus for 
the steadiness test. A bell was placed in the circuit with the 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 61 

apparatus, and every touch on the metal plate by the stylus rang 
the bell. The children were curious to know what made the bell 
ring and asked questions about it. The examiner told them she 
would show them and then let them put in the wires. She wired the 
instrument while they watched, then disconnected it, and told 
them to wire it again. There were two dry cells, the steadiness 
tester, the bell and the stylus in the circuit. If the child wired the 
bell correctly after one demonstration, he was scored 100, and this 
score was divided by the number of repetitions required. Forty- 
two children were tested, four failed; the average score for the 
remainder was 70, M. V. 22, P. E. 19. The 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 
100 percentile wired it correctly after one demonstration. 
Although only one demonstration was required, there were 
different grades of success represented which do not appear in 
the method of scoring used. Some children made and corrected 
errors, although they were shown only once. This was a particular- 
ly popular test; indeed, it was the invention of the children 
themselves. 

The test requires accurate visual perception of position and 
movement and a considerable amount of concentration, and it is 
valuable because it requires no information or understanding of a 
description. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 38. String Games. The sixth and last learning test is 
one which perhaps has never before been used for this purpose. We 
have long thought that the Indian string games, which have a 
wonderful fascination for many children, might be used as a 
mental test. The learning of these games requires a very accurate 
visual perception of movement, of position, and of form, and also 
considerable control over hand and finger movements. The extent 
of almost any child's experience in the games is the familiar cat's 
cradle and the saw, and very few children seemed to know even 
these. A series increasing in difficulty was arranged and the five 
easier games among them used as a learning test with the kinder- 
garten group. The material required is simply two circles of string 
(the joining being made particularly smooth), one for the 
demonstrator's and one for the children's use. The experimenter 
sat at the right of the child so that the child could face as she did 
while watching her hand movements. The examiner placed the 
string on her hand in the fundamental position for most of the 



62 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

games, took it off, and asked the child to do the same. Three 
demonstrations were given if necessary and if the child succeeded, 
a more difficult positon was tried. 

A credit of 20 was given for each step successfully copied, a 
perfect score, 100, requiring success in five distinct steps. The 
series used was: (1) position one; (2) opening one; (3) tent; 
(4) spearing fish; (5) house. The little ones were interested in 
these games and much pleased when they succeeded in learning 
them. Thirty-six children were tested, three failed, the 33 
successful ones attaining an average score of 41.8, M. V. 18, P. E. 
15. The 100 percentile score is 80, the 50 percentile score is 40, and 
the percentile 0. The test will, perhaps, prove useful for older 
children because it calls for accurate perception and much 
concentration without making any demand upon language or 
information of any sort. (Tables III, IV.) 

The games were taken from a book by Kathleen Haddon, called 
Cat's Cradles from Many Lands. 

h. Suggestibility. 

The suggestion tests are six in number. Two of them are 
designed to influence judgments — one requiring judgment of the 
length of lines and one judgment of weight. Two are designed 
to produce sensory hallucinations one of smell and one of taste. Two 
aim to measure the tendency to establish automatisms. 

Test No. 39. Suggestion of Length. The test designed to influence 
judgment of length of lines was first used by Binet. 4 The material 
consists of a series of horizontal lines drawn on a sheet of white 
paper at varying distances from the margin. The first line is one 
inch long, the second two inches, the third three inches, the fourth 
four inches, the fifth five inches and thirty-two others are each five 
inches long. The suggestion is given entirely by the order of the 
first five lines. Each line is very plainly longer than the one 
preceding it and by the time the fifth line is observed the 
suggestion that each line of the series will be longer than the line 
preceding it has been given by the material itself. 

The procedure is as follows: — one line is shown at a time, all 
others being covered. To the child is said, "I want to see how well 
you can judge length, how well you can tell whether one line is 
longer or shorter than another line. I shall show you one line at a 
time and I want you to tell me every time I show you a new line 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 63 

whether it is longer or shorter, or just the same as the line you 
saw just before." Then the examiner shows the one inch line, 
covers it and shows the two inch line, saying, "Is this longer or 
shorter, or the same?" Then she covers the two inch line, showing 
the three inch line and saying, "Is this longer or shorter or the 
same ? ' ', then covers the three inch line, showing the four inch line 
and asking the same question. After the fifth line she shortens the 
question, saying, "And this one?" Thirty-five children succeeded 
in performing this task. Of the 35 only one was entirely 
uninfluenced, judging all the five inch lines as "the same." 
Twenty-eight children, or 80 per cent, were totally suggestible, 
giving no judgment of "the same;" three were unequal to the 
task, not having sufficient power of application to complete it. 
(Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 40. Suggestion of Weight. The test designed to influence 
judgment of weight is also an invention of Binet. 4 The material 
comprises 15 black wooden bottles, plainly numbered in white on 

the top, 1, 2, 3, 15. No. 1 weighs 20 grams, No. 2, 40 grams, 

No. 3, 60 grams, No. 4, 80 grams, No. 5 and the other ten all 100 
grams. Again the suggestion is given entirely by the order of the 
material. Each bottle lifted, up to and including the fifth, is very 
evidently heavier than the one immediately preceding it and that 
fact establishes the suggestion. The examiner says to the child, "I 
want to see how well you can judge weight, how well you can tell 
which is the heavier of two bottles. First I want you to pick up this 
bottle (lifting No. 1), then to lift this bottle (lifting No. 2) and 
while you have it in your hand tell me whether it is heavier or 
lighter than No. 1, or just the same as No. 1. Then put it down, lift 
up the next and tell me whether it is heavier or lighter than No. 
2, or just the same; then put it down, lift the next and tell me 
whether it is heavier or lighter than No. 3, or just the same as No. 
3." She proceeds in this way to the fifth and then says, "And do 
the same with all the other bottles." 

Thirty-five children succeeded in performing this test. Three 
failed because they could not judge correctly between the 
difference of the first five weights. Of the 35 who succeeded, one 
was uninfluenced by the suggestion, judging the last ten weights 
equal and the other 34 were totally suggestible, not one judgment 
of equal being given by any one of them. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 41. Suggestion of Odor. The test material used for pro- 



64 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

ducing an hallucination of smell consisted of a little bottle of lilac 
perfume and another bottle of tinted but unscented water. The 
child was given the perfume to smell and asked what it was. The 
usual answer was perfume, but sometimes the child did not know 
the word perfume and simply said, "good" or "nice". Then the 
other bottle was presented, with the same question. 

Thirty-six children succeeded in performing this test. One failed 
through lack of attention. Of the 36, 21 (58 per cent) responded 
to the suggestion, answering that the second bottle contained 
perfume. Fifteen children could smell nothing when given the 
second bottle. There is perhaps little doubt that 58 percent of the 
children were really suggestible, but there is a doubt that an 
hallucination was present in all cases. In some instances it seemed 
that the children said they smelled perfume because they thought 
it was perfume and thought they were expected to smell it, not 
because they really thought they smelled anything. (Tables III, 
IV.) 

Test No. 42. Suggestion of Taste. The material used for 
producing an hallucination of taste was similar to that used for 
producing a sensation of odor. Three bottles, one containing very 
sweet water, one slightly sweetened water, and one unsweetened 
water were used. The experimenter told the child she wanted to 
find out how well he could taste, reassuring him by telling him 
that what she gave him would taste good. Then with a piece of 
absorbent cotton she touched his tongue with the sweetened water, 
which he watched her take from the bottle. He, of course, said it 
was sweet, or tasted like candy. Then she used the slightly 
sweetened water, asking whether he could taste the sugar in that, 
and finally used the unsweetened water, asking the same question. 

Of the 35 children who succeeded in performing this test 15 were 
suggestible, claiming they tasted sugar in the unsweetened water. 
There was much greater surety of statement regarding taste than 
smell. The children were clearly less suggestible to taste than to 
smell. Only 40 per cent were suggestible in comparison with 58 
per cent. (Tables III, IV.) 

M. H. Small 19 of Clark University, used practically this same 
method for testing school children en masse. His results are rather 
startling. He found that in using the test designed to produce the 
hallucination of odor, 98 per cent of 93 children in the first grade 
were suggestible and 95 per cent of 62 children in the second grade 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 65 

were suggestible. In the test designed to produce hallucination of 
taste 98 per cent of 94 pupils in the first grade and 90 per cent of 
70 pupils in the second grade were suggestible. Of course in these 
tests there was an added element of suggestibility in the behavior 
of the other children of the class. 

Test No. 43. Automatism — Taps. The two tests designed to 
establish an automatism are borrowed from Rossolimo. 17 The first 
we call the tapping test. The child is given a pencil and the 
experimenter says, ''I want you to tap with your pencil just as I 
do. We will tap together ten times." If the child continues to tap 
after the experimenter stops at ten, the automatism is considered 
established. 

Thirty-eight children performed this test and all of them tapped 
at least once more than the ten times. The record for this test 
therefore is 100 per cent suggestibility. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 44. Automatism — Eye — Hand. The second test of 
automatism consists of asking the child to shake hands with his 
right hand and to close his eyes while he does so. After the lapse 
of about half an hour during which the child has been otherwise 
employed, he is asked to shake hands with the left hand. If the 
suggestion holds, he will close his eyes as he shakes hands. Of 38 
children so tested 21 closed their eyes while shaking hands with 
the left hand. Seventeen failed to do so. Fifty-five per cent of those 
tested had established in one performance a strong association 
between the acts of shaking hands and closing eyes. (Tables III, 
IV.) 

These last two tests illustrate how easy it is to establish habits, 
how rapidly new associations between stimuli and motor responses 
can be set up. They show how important it is that parents and 
teachers take infinite care while the children are young to establish 
desirable motor responses and to guard against the undesirable 
which are all too easily established. 

3. Complex Performance Tests 

Test No. 45. The Max field Cube. The Maxfield cube test is so 
named because Dr. Francis Maxfield introduced it, although the 
actual patterns used by us may not be the same as those used by 
Dr. Maxfield. The cubes used are the color cubes sold by the 
Bradley Co. They are one inch cubes and present one blue, one 
yellow, one red, one white surface, one surface blue and yellow, and 



66 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

one red and white, the colors on the last two surfaces meeting at a 
diagonal. These blocks lend themselves readily to the formation of 
geometric designs of varying degrees of difficulty. Four blocks 
were used, each child being given four similar ones. The blocks 
were arranged in a pattern on a table before the child and he was 
asked to make a pattern like it with his blocks. The patterns used 
were the following : 

1. Solid square of one color 

2. Square of yellow within square of blue 

3. Two white tents or soldier caps, one under the other 

4. A diagonal stripe of white on a red surface 

5. A chevron of yellow on a blue surface 

6. A pin wheel. 

Success in forming all six designs gave a score of 100, each 
success contributing 16.66 toward the score. Forty-five children 
performed the test, the upper 20 per cent making a perfect score, 
the 60 and 70 percentiles making 83.3, the 40 and 50 percentiles 
66.64. Av. 67.02, M. V. 23.35, P. E. 19.74. (Tables III, IV.) 

The test requires in its performance accuracy of both color and 
form perception, the ability to perceive slight differences of form 
and position in a pattern containing several varieties of both, and 
the ability to analyze the total perception into its block units, 
concentrating on each in turn to the exclusion of the others. It was 
considered too complex to be included in the group perception tests. 
Care was taken in that group to isolate as much as possible each 
form of perception. Good scores are often made in the perception 
tests by children who can do little with the cube test. 

Test No. 46. The Seguin Formboard. The older Witmer model of 
Seguin formboard was used, the same board as that used by Dr. 
Sylvester 21 in his experiments. As our children are only five years 
old, the Sylvester norms are not applicable and a slightly different 
procedure was adopted. 

Each child was allowed to repeat the test up to the limit of ten 
times until he had succeeded in one trial in placing all the pieces 
without errors. The child was shown that each block fitted into one 
hole and one only, and was then told to put them all in, each in the 
hole in which it belonged. Before the second attempt the examiner 
said, "Now let's try it again, and this time you will do it just as 
well, and a little quicker." Sometimes even this mild suggestion of 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 67 



/ 




10 




II 



l£ 



Id 



17 








/4 



X 




20 




Material for Line Reproduction Test (No. 47) 



68 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

haste spoiled the accuracy, but often it had no effect whatever, the 
child not attempting to hurry. 

A record was kept of the number of errors made and the time 
consumed in each trial. In computing an efficiency index the 
number of trials instead of the number of errors was used as the 
accuracy index, and a child's accuracy index was determined by 
dividing 100 by the number of trials used before accuracy was 
attained. For instance, child No. 3 placed all blocks correctly 
without error on the second trial ; her accuracy was 50. Child No. 4 
used six trials before attaining a perfect performance; her 
accuracy was 16.66. For the time-score the time of the last trial, a 
perfect performance, was used. The formula used is E=100 —^- . 
A = XT * 00 . ;T = time of last trial. Child No. 3 used two trials; 

JN O. L 1 1H1S 

time of the last trial was 28 seconds, therefore E = 100 -gg- = 178. 

Forty-two children performed the test, three failing to attain a 
perfect performance in the ten trials allowed. The efficiency index 
ranged from 45 to 333, the average was 158, M. V. 70.9, P. E. 
59.9. (Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 47. Line Reproduction. Lines and combinations of lines 
were drawn before the child one at a time with the instruction 
that he draw one like it. The accompanying lines were used. A 
credit of 2.5 was given for Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, (one line figures) 
a credit of 5 for Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 18 (two 
line figures), and a credit of 10 for Nos. 14, 19 and 20 (three and 
four line figures, presenting difficult angles). The performance of 
this test involves visual perception of the position of lines, 
complicated by the reproduction of this perception graphically. 
Involving as it does the coordination of hand movements, this test 
does not depend upon visual perception so much as upon the 
*power of visual perception to direct and control hand movements. 
This control may be weak on account of poor visual perception, 
or on account of lack of association between the visual perception 
and the idea of the movement to be made. Success in this test 
might be expected to indicate ability to learn to write, as it calls 
for the same combination of abilities in a simplified performance. 
If this expectation is realized the test will be a valuable prognostic 
test, inasmuch as it will indicate the probable ability of a child to 
succeed in school work. 

Thirty-eight children were tested; the lowest score was 13.5, 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 69 

the highest 90 (attained by the 100 percentile only), the median 
score was 47.5, the average 48.7, M. V. 19.8, P. E. 16.7. (Tables 

III, IV.) 

Tests No. 48 and 49 have been discussed under General 

Intelligence Tests, page 38. 

Test No. 50. The Knox-Pintner Cube. For this test four black 
cubes from the Stoelting Co. Binet set were used. They were placed 
on the table before the child and he was given a pencil and told to 
"Do just what I do after I have finished." Pintner's 13 order of 
touching the blocks was adhered to and his age level scoring 
followed. 

Success seems to depend upon power of concentration and 
accuracy in perception of position and movement. This analysis is 
somewhat vitiated, however, by the fact that if the subject happens 
upon the trick of numbering the blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, and remembering 
the number names of the successive blocks tapped, the process 
becomes largely one of verbal memory and is much simplified. 
Forty-four children were tested and their age scores compared with 
their chronological age. The variation in performance was so great, 
ranging from two years less than chronological age to 11 years in 
excess of it, that the results throw some doubt upon the claim that 
the Pintner norms are correlated with chronological age. The results 
are presented in graphic form in Chart 1. The graph shows 
three modes. The largest group, 13, made exactly their chronological 
age score; only four failed to make a score corresponding to their 
chronological age, the other 27 exceeding it from 1 to 11 years. 
(Tables III, IV.) 

Test No. 51. The Tort ens Maze. The Porteus Maze test, or the 
motor intellectual series, as Porteus 14 originally designated it, 
consists of a graded series of mazes of increasing difficulty, adapted 
to testing children of ages six to 14 inclusive. These mazes are 
preceded in the series by three simple tests which call for the 
drawing of outline figures between the guide lines, for the years 
three, four and five. The figures are diamond, four pointed star, and 
maltese cross. Porteus claims that the successful performance of 
these tests depends upon prudence and forethought, mental 
alertness, and sustained attention. These qualities, he writes, are 
left untested by the Binet intelligence scale and he offers this 
motor intellectual series as a supplementary test to make more 
complete the estimate of the child's mentality. Porteus, however, in 



70 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFAEE 

his latest monograph on the maze test, September 1919, 15 has revised 
the series, substituting new tests for six and seven years of age, 
shifting the old five year test to four years, the old six year test to 
five years, and discarding the original four year test. The change, 
of course, affects the scale most at just the levels used in our 
investigation, and our age scores might have shown a greater 
correlation with chronological age had the new series been used. . 
Our results are scored according to the original Porteus 14 method 
and compared with his original norms attained by the examination 
of a thousand children in Melbourne, Australia. Three of the 43 
children examined by us passed just at age, three one year below age 
and the other 37 ranged from one to eight years in excess of their 
chronological age. The results are presented in graph form in 
Chart I. There are two distinct modes, one at two years above 
chronological age, twelve cases, and one at four years above chron- 
ological age, eleven cases. These results show little correlation 
with chronological age. (Tables III, IV.) 

VI. TYPE CASES 
In order to gain a knowledge of the social setting of each child, 
it was our plan to have a person trained in the work of social 
investigation visit each home and learn those facts about the family 
life which would help us to an understanding of the child's 
characteristics and of the influences which had been moulding him 
during the live short years of his experience. No such person was 
available, and in order to complete the study, which had already 
nearly reached its goal, the writer undertook to make the visits to 
the homes herself. As a result, she has in mind in thinking of each 
child a picture of him as one of a home group which is quite as 
vivid as her picture of him in the schoolroom or in the laboratory. 
The picture of B. D. is that of a little child stamping into the house 
demanding that her mother give her a piece of bread at once; it 
is followed by one of the mother's worried face as she comes to the 
office at four in the afternoon in the midst of a snowstorm, in a vain 
search for the child, who already at ^ve thinks she can manage her 
affairs far better without her mother's aid. E. is thought of in a 
cluttered, dirty, hopeless room into which she led the way to 
the mother's evident shame. The setting of the picture of D. 
is a tiny home, very pretty, in immaculate order, a beautiful 
and happy young mother enjoying her baby and finding 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 71 

ample time to keep her house and make her clothes, and care for her 
three children. " I do not have too much to do, ' ' she said. ' ' I think 
it is because I plan my work. ' ' 

The children were, for the most part, children of working men, 
men employed in factories, on the railroads, and in the shops. There 
were a few salesmen and one professional man. The majority of the 
families lived in small wooden houses with porches, and sufficient 
rooms for comfortable living. The house work was done by the 
mothers, who seemed to have sufficient money to live comfortably on 
this modest scale. Most of the houses indicated that there was a 
little more than enough money than was required for absolute 
necessities. In many of the homes there was a victrola, a few had a 
piano, and most of them displayed articles of various kinds whose 
chief function was to beautify the home. There were a few families 
that shared their houses with other families and evidently had more 
difficulty in meeting the absolute expenses of life. On the whole, 
all the children came from homes of about the same economic level. 
The individual differences in the home environment, which were 
very striking, depended evidently upon the intelligence and temper- 
ament of the mothers. All of the mothers were endeavoring to make 
the home conditions as comfortable as possible, but some of them 
were sadly in need of knowledge which would have enabled them to 
succeed, and some of them were lacking in the force of character 
which is necessary to bring up a family of children in an intelligent 
manner. 

There is a current notion that the native intelligence of an 
individual decides the social and economic level to which he attains. 
Contact with the mothers and fathers of this group of children 
leads one to doubt the truth of this theory. Among these people, 
who are likely to remain at their present social and economic plane, 
were found men and women of superior mental endowment, who, if 
their careers had started on a higher cultural and economic level, 
would doubtless be filling a place in the professional world today. 
It is not poverty of mental endowment which keeps the parents of 
this special group where they are; it is poverty of mental 
experience. They were not unintelligent, but untutored and 
uncultivated. 

We are not presenting a statistical report of the social findings, 
as their value lies wholly in the relation of conditions in the 
individual homes to the quality, mental and physical, of the 



72 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

children these homes have sent to the schools. Instead, short 
sketches have been prepared for each child, which state the salient 
facts gleaned from the family visits and the physical and mental 
examinations, and are aimed to present a fairly complete picture 
of the individual children. A few typical sketches follow. 

Child No. 1. Johnny was the first child brought to the office 
because he was an unsolved problem in the schoolroom. The 
difficulty was that the child refused to talk, his efforts limiting 
themselves to pronouncing his own name. During the first fifteen 
or twenty minutes he did all that was asked if no speech was 
required. He answered all questions that a nod or shake of the head 
would dispose of, but he spoke no word. Finally, when all toys and 
games had failed to appeal, he was asked, "What would you like 
to do ? " and the answer came in a burst of tears, ' ' Go home. ' ' He 
was told, ' ' Of course you may go home if you want to, ' ' and while 
he was being comforted and his coat put on he talked a little. This 
talk revealed an infantile stammer. In the afternoon the mother 
came to see what was going on, and brought her younger boy with 
her ; the two children chattered together in a language unintelligible 
to others. The younger brother never uses this form of talk except 
to Johnny. The mother does not like Johnny to talk so queerly and 
tries to shame him out of it. The result is a self -consciousness which 
prevents Johnny from talking at all. The mother's attitude is a 
little resentful that Johnny is as he is, and a little resentful that 
we notice it, and she unconsciously lets this feeling affect her treat- 
ment of the boy. The home is a second floor flat. The father is of 
Swedish parentage. There is plenty of money to buy the necessary 
food, but the mother is of the opinion that children should not be 
made to eat anything which they do not like. The house is clean and 
well kept, as are the children. There is no attempt to beautify the 
home, but its bareness is more an indication of lack of feeling for 
beauty than of poverty. The boys play together constantly and are 
much on the street. 

Johnny was a healthy baby, was nursed by his mother, and has 
never been seriously ill. He is quite cross-eyed, and an examination 
of his eyes revealed the fact that the vision of one eye is four-tenths, 
and of the other one-tenth. His tonsils are very large, he needs 
circumcision, he has flat foot, bow legs, protruding scapulae, eleven 
carious teeth, and the haemoglobin content is 75. Johnny is a little 
overweight, and it would seem, must have much physical vigor to 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 73 

-withstand as well as he does so many physical defects. The mother 
at once had his eyes examined and procured glasses; the other 
defects have not been remedied. 

The mental examination revealed as many weaknesses as did the 
physical. At only six points does his profile curve pass the 50 per- 
centile. One of these points shows no ability, but as it was a 
suggestion test in which the whole class followed the suggestion, the 
100 percentile really means participation in class failure. One 
suggeston test was successfully resisted, the 60 percentile was 
reached in one discriminative attention test, and the 70 percentile 
in the other. The 60 percentile was also reached in the picture 
memory test, the 70 percentile in the first steadiness test for the left 
hand (which is his preferred hand). The peaks are rare in this 
profile, which occupies almost constantly the lower part of the 
graph. In all the performance tests and in the general intelligence 
tests he falls behind, testing just at age or in the 30 percentile by 
Binet, and one year retarded or in the percentile by the Stan- 
ford revision. He graded at the 50 percentile in the Knox-Pintner 
cube test, and the percentile in the Porteus test. 

The physical and mental pictures of this little boy are strikingly 
similar, defects being so numerous that one almost despairs. Never- 
theless, there are so many points of attack for helping Johnny that 
there is much to do before we give up. The mother is worried over 
him and will do all that she is convinced is right to do. She feels 
that the school should provide special training for children with 
such speech defects, and rather resents being told that Johnny 
should have special training when the schools obviously do not 
provide it. 

Without the correction of his physical defects, and in addition 
special training, the prospect for Johnny is not good. With these 
it is possible that much may be done to help him. 

Child No. 2. Anna is a little girl who came to us on her fifth 
birthday. She is fat, rosy and six pounds overweight. She was a 
healthy breast-fed baby. At six months she had whooping cough and 
developed eczema on her head and body, which has continued in 
•spite of various treatments ever since, though now it is confined 
entirely to her body. 

The home is a very comfortable working man's home, a small 
wooden house with porch, the kind common in this neighborhood. 
The house is furnished well with some thought to decoration, but 



74 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

almost too plentifully supplied with pictures. There is a piano and 
the young mother is studying music. The parents are socially 
inclined and "go a great deal" in the evenings, always taking Anna 
because she can not be left alone. She gets very little sleep, taking 
no nap and going to bed late. She drinks no milk, eats principally 
potatoes and gravy and fruit. 

She is a bright, happy, little thing and shows no nerve signs in 
spite of loss of sleep and poorly balanced diet. Medical examination, 
however, revealed a heart murmur and enlarged tonsils and 
adenoids. The haemoglobin content is 95, the highest for any child 
in the group. Her psychic profile shows a rather even fluctuation 
above and below the median percentiles. Her lowest scores occur in 
imagination and psycho-motor ability. In general intelligence she 
tested just at age, both by the Binet and Stanford Revision Intelli- 
gence scales. Strong in attention, she scored five years beyond her 
age in the Knox-Pintner Cube test, but this only puts her in the 80 
percentile group. 

Medical care, change of diet, and regular hours are greatly to be 
desired for this little girl. Although she does not now to any great 
extent show the bad effects of the unwise home regime, it can hardly 
be expected that many years will pass before very grave results 
will be evidenced. The greatest lack in this home is a knowledge of 
the proper daily routine for a child. She receives devoted care, but 
it is very unwisely directed. There is no doubt of her future 
satisfactory mental progress. 

Child No. 3. Sophie is the picture of health, four pounds heavier 
than the average for her age, with rosy cheeks, bright eyes, and an 
alert, emotional and lovable disposition. She has an infantile stam- 
mer which persists because she uses it in a very appealing way which 
brings an appreciative smile from all hearers. Unfortunately, a 
careful medical examination did not justify the appearance of 
abundant health. The bright eyes had not quite perfect vision, the 
cervical glands, the inguinal glands, the tonsils and adenoids were 
enlarged, there was a heart murmur and two teeth were decayed. 
The haemoglobin content was however, rather high — 83. 

The mother reports that Sophie did not have a very good start 
in life; the birth was difficult, the child small and sickly and the 
mother had not sufficient milk to nourish her. She has suffered no 
serious illness since. 

The mother was much disappointed in the medical report because 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 75 

Sophie is the baby and the pride of a very happy and united little 
family. The parents are Russian Jews, the father a junk dealer. 
The home, which is of the usual small wooden type, is not only 
comfortable but attractive. The family spirit is very beautiful and 
the attitude toward strangers cordial and hospitable. Sophie drinks 
one quart of milk a day and it is very evident that there is plenty 
of good food for the child. 

Sophie's emotionalism showed itself in an outburst of temper. 
She thought herself deceived and slighted by her older sister and 
stamped and sobbed and would not be comforted. The mother had 
little control over her. The child is much loved and the sweetness 
of her nature has been developed thereby, but unfortunately, not 
her self-control. 

The psychic profile lies for the most part high on the chart, 
although the imagination drops very low and also the vital capacity 
In general intelligence she is a year in advance by the Binet series, 
and just at age by the Stanford Revision. 

Sophie's chief need is that her parents be guided to give her 
proper medical, dental and hygienic attention. The parents desire 
to do well for their children, but they are themselves at the point 
where one hot bath a week seems sufficient and the cleaning of 
teeth is entirely overlooked. Special training should be given at once 
to terminate the infantile stammer, which if it continues, is very 
likely to interfere with her mental progress. With medical care and 
speech training provided, satisfactory mental development is 
certain. 

Children Nos. 4 and 5. Erma and Effie are twins, and the only 
children of the family. They are tall and thin, rather pale and 
breathe through their mouths. All that is said of one may be dupli- 
cated for the other, for they are almost identical in appearance, 
voice, gesture, temperament and mental type. 

The home is an exceedingly comfortable one, kept so by thrift 
and industry on the part of the mother. She makes attractive 
dresses for the children, sometimes, according to the little girls, 
"from our grandmother's." She also crochets lace for sale among 
her friends. There is a piano and a victrola in the living room. The 
mother manages the little girls as well as she manages the home 
economy ; they are well behaved, obedient and go to bed every night 
at eight o'clock. They give the mother no trouble, are tremendously 



76 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

interested in her fancy work and in all that she does, and are 
demonstratively affectionate toward her. 

The mother is of German descent. The father's ancestry is 
obscure. The children were delivered by instruments, they were 
nursed by the mother and have had no illnesses, not even the 
ordinary children's diseases. 

In spite of this account of good health, the medical examination 
confirms the general impression the children give of poor physical 
condition. It shows enlarged tonsils, adenoids and cervical glands, 
malnutrition, umbilical hernia, flat foot, protruding scapulae and 
many carious teeth, among which are permanent molars. The 
quality of their voices is spoiled by the enlarged adenoids, which 
prevent nasal breathing, and their beauty is marred by their open 
mouths. The undernourished condition is probably largely due to 
the absorption of pus from tonsils, adenoids and teeth. The 
problem is serious because the father resents even a physical 
examination of his children. An effort should be made to reach the 
father and to convince him of the physical needs of his little ones, 
and the inevitable suffering their neglect will bring upon them. 

Both little girls have reached the same general intelligence level, 
scoring the 100 percentile in the Binet series, and the 90 percentile 
in the Stanford Revision, thus showing a two and a one year 
acceleration. Their psychic profiles are alike in type. Their, mental 
ability is undoubtedly of a high order. 

Child No. 7. Edwin would attract attention anywhere with his 
keenly alert, strangely mature little face and undersized, under- 
nourished little body. He is entirely lacking in childishness; no 
trace of the baby remains, although he is but five years of age. He 
is a little on the defensive, distrustful of strangers and entirely 
determined to do as he pleases. 

The physical examination showed him to be five pounds lighter 
than the average for his age, to have a haemoglobin content of 75, 
to be partially deaf in the right ear (the result of former middle 
ear disease), and to have a slight scoliosis, with protruding 
scapulae. He had already been circumcised. 

The mother, who is a woman of refinement and ambition, 
although without much education, is almost in despair concerning 
the boy, who from the first has been a nervous, irritable, sickly little 
thing. He is the only child living, coming to the mother late in life 
after she had lost several babies. The birth was difficult, the 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 77 

mother's milk did not agree with Edwin nor did other food, and he 
has always had great trouble with constipation. The mother, 
instead of regulating his food wisely, constantly resorts to laxatives. 
On account of his sickliness he has been humored until now he is 
entirely beyond his parents' control. He eats what he chooses 
irrespective of consequences and the mother is unable to prevent 
him without precipitating such a scene that she prefers to keep the 
peace. The mother is of English parentage, the father probably of 
Irish descent. There is money enough and good will enough to do 
all possible for the boy, but his training has been wrong from the 
start and the child now has full control of everything but his 
temper. 

In the intelligence tests, Edwin reached the 70 percentile with 
the Binet tests, which signifies an acceleration of one year, and the 
60 percentile in the Terman Revision, signifying his chronological 
age level. It was impossible to make a thorough mental analysis in 
Edwin's case because he absolutely refused to cooperate. 

Child No. 8. Isadore is an only child. The father is a mechanic of 
Swedish descent. He measures six feet two inches, and is physically 
a splendid specimen of manhood. His mind is no mean match for 
his body, and had circumstances started him in a different groove 
he could easily have qualified for a profession. The mother is 
Pennsylvania Dutch. 

The home is a good one. The furnishings are of good quality, the 
pictures well chosen and the rooms tastefully arranged. 

Isadore is very lively and energetic, and the mother fears that he 
will find out that his will is stronger than hers. He was a healthy 
baby, nursed by the mother. His only illnesses have been mumps 
and measles. He drinks plenty of milk and is a well brought up, 
attractive boy. 

The physical examination shows enlarged cervical glands, 
adenoids and tonsils, a slight dullness of hearing, a haemoglobin 
content of 72, and protruding scapulae. He needs circumcision. As 
the parents are decidedly intelligent and much interested in our 
efforts to help the child, Isadore will probably be given the 
individual aid which he needs. 

His mental profile shows very few dips into the lower half of the 
graph. In general intelligence he only made the 30 percentile on 
the Binet test, and the 60 percentile in the Stanford Revision. This 
is exactly his chronological age grading. 



78 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

Child No. 9. Daisy, aged five, has the independence of a woman 
of forty. She wishes no interference to detract from the effect of her 
own personality. On entering kindergarten for the first time, she 
decided to go alone, and she wishes to choose her own clothes and 
her mother's too, for that matter. Her parents are American. The 
mother is attractive in person and very mild and unassertive in 
temperament. The father is a farmer and is away from home a great 
deal. The mother is not very well. She has rheumatism, in the hope 
of relieving which she has had her appendix, tonsils and several 
teeth removed. The home is very small. It is very clean, but only 
moderately neat and comfortable. 

The child has absolutely no respect for her mother's word or 
opinion. The mother realizes this and complains that the father has 
always spoiled the child by allowing her to do whatever she fancies. 
He began when she was an infant by insisting that the mother drop 
everything and take her up whenever she began to cry. The health 
crusade appealed to the child and led her to demand milk and cocoa 
for the first time. Previously she demanded tea and coffee in spite 
of her mother's protests. Now she as determinedly refuses to touch 
them. She sleeps ten hours each night. She is five pounds heavier 
than the average for her age and her only physical defect apart 
from the low haemoglobin content (75) is very defective vision. The 
mother had this corrected by glasses immediately upon being 
notified of the condition. 

Daisy's psychological profile shows a weakness in imagination 
and in the perception of grays. Her general intelligence, which is at 
the 70 percentile in the Binet series and the 60 percentile in the 
Stanford Revision, is by the former two years accelerated and by 
the latter exactly at her chronological level. The most remarkable 
thing about the child is her tremendous self possession and inde- 
pendence. She was most valuable to us as a pilot for all the shy 
youngsters and helped us over many difficult places with them. Her 
confidence in herself has evidenlty been gained at the cost of respect 
for her mother. She is, however, of a sunny bright nature which 
makes everyone like her in spite of her abnormal amount of 
assurance. Guidance by a wise strong woman is what is needed for 
Daisy. 

Child No. 10. Theodore is the last of four children. The parents 
are of English descent. Both parents are people of native refine- 
ment, but the cost of living has proved too much for them and the 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 79 

pinch of poverty is plainly visible. All four of the children are 
mouth breathers. They all have enlarged tonsils, adenoids and an 
offensive nasal discharge. Fortunately, the parents were glad to 
send all the children to the Children's Hospital in Iowa City. 
Theodore's tonsils and adenoids were removed and his antrum 
punctured. Just one month later he had to return for a second 
puncture of the antrum. His medical examination also showed 
enlarged cervical glands, a haemoglobin content of 76, weight two 
pounds under average and flat foot. 

The mental examination revealed a general backwardness and a 
psychic profile which repeatedly dipped below the median and was 
particularly poor in imagination, judgment and psycho-motor 
control. In general intelligence he ranked among those at the 
percentile by both the Binet and the Terman scales which means one 
year retardation. We could hardly expect any other result with the 
physical condition above described. Even in the interval between the 
first and second operation there was practically no physical relief. 

Children Nos. 13 and 14. Children Nos. 13 and 14 are brother and 
sister, whom we will call Sonny and Sarah. They are both fat and 
beaming, and it is pleasing to see the protecting air of the boy when 
he brings his little sister just a year younger than he is to school or 
to the office. The two are the youngest of five siblings. The older 
three are all girls and all married. The parents are both American 
born, of English Canadian and Scotch parentage. The father is a 
laborer and the pinch of poverty is reflected in the poor home and 
meager furnishings. They are fortunate in having a strip of ground 
back of the house which the father converts into a kitchen garden in 
the summer time. This probably accounts for the well fed appear- 
ance of the children. The mother is a strong industrious type, and 
the spirit of the home is splendid. 

Neither of the children has had any of the usual children's 
diseases. Sarah is subject to croup which the mother says is "in the 
family." Sarah has large and diseased tonsils, enlarged cervical 
glands, a haemoglobin content of 75 and a slight mitral regurgita- 
tion. The left ear drum is dull ; the hearing, however, is not affected. 
The vision is quite defective and there is in addition an incoordina- 
tion of eye muscles. She is left handed. Sonny has many of the same 
physical difficulties. He has defective vision, enlarged tonsils, 
enlarged cervical glands and heart murmur. He also has enlarged 



80 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

inguinal glands and needs circumcision. He has lordosis and 
scoliosis. 

Such a list of physical defects for two children who, to a casual 
observer, appear particularly healthy, indicates the necessity of a 
thorough medical examination of all children when they first enter 
school. 

For Sonny the Binet level is one year in advance of his age, the 
Stanford Revision just at age. The highest peaks in his psycholog- 
ical profile are attained in attention and psycho-motor ability and 
in resistance to suggestion; there is a decided dip in imagination 
and in one learning test, while the tests of the memory and of the 
perception group show little correlation within the group. Sarah 
did not make such a good showing mentally. Her intelligence rating 
was just at age, with both series of tests, but she dropped below the 
median in nineteen points in her psychic profile; she resisted 
suggestion well and made other good scores in some of the percep- 
tion, memory and learning tests, reaching the 90 percentile in the 
Vital Capacity score. Both children give promise of developing into 
intelligent individuals, but in order to do so they need immediate 
medical care. 

Child No. 15. Helen is seven years old, a loving and lovable child y 
but sadly handicapped physically and socially. She was born with a 
left hand that has only part of the first phalanx of all fingers and 
thumb. She said, with a pathetic smile, that God wished her hand 
to be that way. Her family is large and very poor; both her body 
and her clothing testify to sad neglect. The child objected so 
strenuously and so tearfully to the physical examination that it 
could not be completed. Her embarrassment was probably largely 
due to her uncleanly condition. Even with this incomplete examina- 
tion, her list of physical defects is long — poor vision, enlarged 
cervical glands, rales, heart murmur, marked malnutrition, six 
pounds underweight, with a Vital Index below standard. 

Her irregular school attendance made impossible as exhaustive a 
mental examination as was made of some of the children and 
therefore her psychic profile shows many gaps. Her intelligence level 
by the Binet scale and also by the Stanford Revision is just at age. 
Her age level for the Knox-Pintner cube test drops to the 30 
percentile and for the Porteus maze test reaches the 50 percentile. 

This is clearly the case of a child backward in school on account 
of adverse home conditions. She evidently is deprived of the 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 81 

necessary food, clothing, soap and water, to say nothing of the 
opportunity for play and joy which are prerequisites of healthy 
childhood. 



Enough sketches have been presented to show that the basis of 
physical defects and of character defects that may result in school 
and life failure is already fixed when the child first enters school. 
Enough sketches have been presented to emphasize the fact that if 
we desire to start the children in our schools with more equal 
chances of success we must reach the young mothers and must help 
them to an understanding of the needs of their children and of the 
tremendous effect on their children's lives of the habits that are 
formed during the first five years. The parents must be taught what 
to feed their children and why, when to put them to bed, and how 
long to keep them there. They must be made to realize that unless 
children see and hear clearly, breathe through their noses, have good 
teeth and good digestions, they need not be expected to succeed in 
school, or to retain their health and energy long. Parents must be 
taught just how to form in their children desirable habits and how 
to thwart undesirable habits. All this knowledge must be made vital 
for them, and they must be given actual aid in putting it in 
practice. 

If educators would succeed in leading the next generation to the 
success of which it is potentially capable they must enter the homes 
and help the young parents in whose care are those first &ve years so 
important for the laying of a firm foundation of health and good 
habits. In order to furnish such guidance, educators must study the 
children during their first year in school and see to it that those who 
are handicapped by physical or mental defects or derangements are 
provided with the medical and pedagogical aid that they require. 



82 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 



»*»*»SS?»8 




Gray 

Red 

Blue 

Green 

Yellow 

Length 

Form 

Position 

Weight 

Words 

Sentences 

Colors 

Objects 

Forms 

Position 

Pictures 

Visual Span 

Auditory Span 

Attention - Simple 

Attention -Disc 

Attention - Simple 

Attention- Disc. 

Heilbronner 

Healy-Fernold A 

HeafyFernald B 

Judgment 

Steadiness t'R 

Steadiness t-L, 

Steadiness Z-R 

Tar gat -R 

Target -L 

Spirometer 

Dynamometer -R 

Dynamometer -L 

He a/y- Fern aid -A 

Healy - Fernald'B 

Wiring 

Strin g Gam e s 

Judgment- Length 

Judgment- Weight 

Hallucination -S. 

Hallucination - T. 

Automatism-Taps 

AutomoHsm-E-H. 



rlaxf/e/d Cube, 
Form Board 
Line Reproduction 



Binet 

Stanford Revision 

Knox-Pintner Cube 

Porteus 



Chart III. Individual Psychological Profiles, 1-3 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 



83 



»»»V*»t*t*3 




Gray 

Red 

Blue 

Green 

Yellow 

Length 

Form 

Position 

Weight 

Words 

Sentences 

Colors 

Objects 

Forms 

Position 

Pictures 

Visual Span 

Auditory Span 

Attention - Simple 

Attention "Disc, 

Attention - Simple 

Attention- Disc. 

Meilbronner 

Heo/y-Fernold A 

Heoly-Fernald & 

Judgment 

Steadiness I'R 

Steadiness t-L 

Steadiness £-R 

Target • R 

Target -L 

Spirometer 

Dynamometer -R 

Dynamometer -L 

Healy - Ferna/d 'A 

Mealy- Fernald- B 

Wiring 

String Games 

Judgment- L enath 

Judgment-Weight 

Hallucination -S. 

Hallucination - T. 

Automatism-Taps 

Automatism -E-H. 



Hoxfie/d Cube 
Form Board 
Line Reproduction 



Binet 

Stanford Revision 

KnoK-Pintner Cub* 

Porteus 



Chart IV. Individual Psychological Profiles, 4, 5, 7, 



84 



IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 




Gray 
Red 
Blue 
Green 
Yellow 
Length 
Form 
Position 
Weight 
Words 
Sentences 
Colors 
Objects 
Forms 
Position 
Pictures 
Visual Span 
Auditory Span 
Attention- Simple ' 
Attention -Disc. 
Attention - Simple 
Attention- Disc. 
Meilbronn er 
HeafyFernald A 
Healy-Fernald & 
Judgment 
Steadiness l~R 
Steadiness t~L 
Steadiness Z'R 
Target -R 
Target ~L 
Spirometer 
Dynamometer -P. 
Dynamometer -L 
Hea/y - Ferno/d-A 
Healy - Fernald-Q 
Wiring 

String Games 
Judgment- Length 
Judgment-Weight 
Hallucination -S. 
Hallucination - T. ' 
1 Automatism-Taps 
Automatism -£-H. 



Maxfield Cube 

Form Board 

L in e Repro du c+i'on 



Binet * 

Stanford Revision 
KnoK-Pintnar Cube 
Porteus 



Chart V. Individual Psychological Profiles, 8-10 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 



85 



t • t * 1 1 1 




Gray 
Fed 

Blue 
Green 
Yellow 
Length 
Form 
Position 
Weight 
Words 
Sentence* 
Colors 
Objects 
Forms 
Position 
Pictures 
Visual Span 
Auditory Span 
Attention - Simple 
Attention "Disc. 
Attention - Simple 
Attention - Disc. 
Heilbronn e r 
Healy-Fernald A 
Healy-Fernald 8 
Judgment 
Steadiness I'R 
Steadiness l~L 
Steadiness 2rR 
Target -R 
.Target -L 
Spirometer 
Dynamometer -R 
Dynamometer -L 
He a/y - Fern aid -A 
Hea/y-Fernald'B 
Wiring 

String Games 
Judgment- Length 
Judgm ent- Weight 
Hallucination -S. 
Hallucination - T. 
Automatism-Taps 
Automatism -F-H. 



Maxf/eld Cube 
Form Board 
Una Reproduction 



Binet 

Stan/6 rd Re vis ion 

KnoK-Pintner Cube 

Porteus 



Chart VI. Individual Psychological Profiles, 13, 43, 45 



86 IOWA STUDIES IN CHILD WELFARE 

VII. REFERENCES 

1. Andrews, B. R. Auditory Tests. Amer. J. of Psychol, 1904, (15), 

14-56. 

2. Baldwin, B. T. Physical Growth and School Progress. (Bull. No. 10, 

U. S. Bur. of Educ.) Washington: Gov. Print. Off., 1914. Pp. 215. 

3. Binet, A. and Simon, T. A Method of Measuring the Development 

of the Intelligence of Young Children. Translated. C. H. Town 
Chicago: Medical Book Co., 1915, 3rd Ed. Pp. 82. 

4. Binet, A. La Suggestibility. Paris: Schleicher freres, 1900. Pp. 391. 

5. Claparede, E. Profils psychologique gradues d'apres l'ordination des 

sujects. Arch, de psychol., 1916, (17), 70-81. 

6. Davenport, C. B. The Trait Book. Eugenics Record Off. Bull. 

No. 6, 1912. 

7. De Busk, B. W. Height, Weight, Vital Capacity and Retardation. 

Ped. Sem., 1913, (20), 89-91. 

8. Doll, E. A. Anthropometry as an Aid to Mental Diagnosis. The 

Training School. Vineland, N. J.: 1916. Pp. 99. 

9. Haddon, K. Cat's Cradles from Many Lands. New York: Long- 

man's, Green & Co., 1911. Pp. 95. 

10. Healy, W. and Fernald, G. Tests for Practical Mental Classifi- 

cation. Psychol. Mon., 1911, (13), No. 2. 

11. Heilbronner, K. Zur Klinisch-psychologischen Untersuchungens- 

technik. Monatsch. f. Psychiat. u. Neurol, 1905, (17), 115-132. 

12. Montessori, M. Pedagogical Anthropology. New York: Stokes, 

1913. Pp. 500. 

13. Pintner, R. and Paterson, D. A Scale of Performance Tests. New 

York: D. Appleton & Co., 1917. Pp. 213. 

14. Porteus, S. D. Mental Tests for Feeble-Minded ; A New Series. 

J. of Psycho- Asthenics, 1915, (19), No. 4. 

15. Porteus, S. D. Porteus Tests — Vineland Revision. Publ. of the 

Train. Sch. Vineland, N. J.: 1919, No. 16. 

16. Porteus, S. D. Cephalometry of the Feeble-Minded. Train. Sch. 

Bull., 1919-20, (16), 49-72. 

17. Rossolimo, G. Die psychologischen profils. Zur Methodik der 

quantitativen Untersuchung der psychischen Vorgange in normalen 
und pathologischen Falle. Klinik f. psych, u. nervose Krankh., 
1911, (6); 1912, (7); 1913, (8). 

18. Seashore, C. E. The Audiometer. Univ. of Iowa Studies in Psychol, 

Iowa City: University of Iowa Monographs, (2), 158. 

19. Small, M. H. Methods of Manifesting the Instinct for Certainty. 

Ped. Sem., 1897, (5), 313-380. 

20. Smedley, F. W. Child Study Report No. 3, Chicago Pub. Sch. Chi* 

cago, 111.: 1902. 

21. Sylvester, R. H. The Form Board Test. Psychol. Mon,, 1913, (15), 

No. 4. 



ANALYTIC STUDY OF CHILDREN 87 

22. Terman, L. M. The Measurement of Intelligence. New York: 

Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. Pp. 362. 

23. Winch, W. H. Some New Reasoning Tests Suitable for School 

Children. Brit. J. of Psychol, 1914, (7). 

24. Woodworth, R. S. and Wells, T. L. Association Tests. Psychol. 

Mon., 1911, (13), No. 5. 

25. Young, J. E. Supernormal Environment in its Relation to the Nor- 

mal Child. Trans, of the hth Intern. Cong, on Sch. Hyg. Buffalo: 
1913, (2), 17-30.